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2013年(一月MBA联考)英语真题及答案

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  2013年(一月MBA联考)英语真题及答案

 

  Section I Use of English

 

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C

  or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Given the advantages of electronic money, you might think that we would move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically. 1 a true cashless society is probably not around the corner. Indeed, predictions have been 2 for two decades but have not yet come to fruition. For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment would soon "revolutionize the very 3 of money itself," only to 4 itself several years later. Why has the movement to a cashless society been so 5 in coming?

  Although electronic means of payment may be more efficient than a payments system based on paper, several factors work 6 the disappearance of the paper system. First, it is very 7 to set up the computer, card reader, and telecornmunications networks necessary to make electronic money the 8 form of payment Second, paper checks have the advantage that they 9 receipts, something that many consumers are unwilling to 10 . Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of "float" - it takes several days 11 a check is cashed and funds are 12 from the issuer's account, which means that the writer of the check can cam interest on the funds in the meantime. 13 electronic payments arc immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer.

  Fourth, electronic means of payment may 14 security and privacy concerns. We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alterinformation 15 there. The fact that this is not an 16 occurrence means that dishonest persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and 17 from someone else's accounts. The 18 of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a new field of computer science is developing to 19 security issues. A further concern is that the use of electronic means of payment leaves an electronic 20 that contains a large amount of personal data. There are concerns government, employers, and marketers might be able to access these data, thereby violating our privacy.

  1. [A] However [B] Moreover [C] Therefore [D] Otherwise

  2. [A] off [B] back [C] over [D] around

  3. [A] power [B] concept [C] history [D] role

  4. [A] reward [B] resist [C] resume [D] reverse

  5. [A] silent [B] sudden [C] slow [D] steady

  6. [A] for [B] against [C]with [D] on

  7. [A] imaginative [B] expensive [C] sensitive [D] productive

  8. [A] similar [B] original [C] temporary [D] dominant

  9. [A] collect [B] provide [C] copy [D] print

  10. [A] give up [B] take over [C] bring back [D] pass down

  11. [A] before [B] after [C] since [D] when

  12. [A] kept [B] borrowed [C] released [D] withdrawn

  13. [A] Unless [B] Until [C] Because [D] Though

  14. [A] hide [B] express [C] raise [D]ease

  15. [A] analyzed [B] shared [C] stored [D] displayed

  16. [A] unsafe [B] unnatural [C] uncommon [D] unclear

  17. [A] steal [B] choose [C] benefit [D] return

  18. [A] consideration [B] prevention

  [C] manipulation [D] justification

  19. [A] cope with [B] fight against [C] adapt to [D] call for

  20. [A] chunk [B] chip [C] path [D] trail

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D.

  Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  In an essay entitled “Making It in America”, the author Adam Davidson relates a joke from cotton about just how much a modern textile mill has been automated: The average mill only two employees today,” a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.” Davidson’s article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middle-class incomes today is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution, which are more rapidly than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign worker.

  In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job,could earn an average lifestyle ,But ,today ,average is officially over. Being average just won’t earn you what it used to.

  It can’t when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius.

  Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment.

  Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But there’s been an acceleration. As Davidson notes,” In the 10 years ending in 2009, [U.S.] factories shed workers so fast that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three   manufacturing jobs-about 6 million in total -disappeared.

  There will always be changed-new jobs, new products, new services. But the one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the I.T. revolution, the best jobs will require workers to have more and better education to make themselves above average.

  In a world where average is officially over, there are many things we need to do to support employment, but nothing would be more important than passing some kind of G.I.Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has access to poet-high school education.

  21. The joke in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate_______.

  [A] the impact of technological advances

  [B] the alleviation of job pressure

  [C] the shrinkage of textile mills

  [D] the decline of middle-class incomes

  22. According to Paragraph 3, to be a successful employee, one has to______

  [A] work on cheap software

  [B] ask for a moderate salary

  [C] adopt an average lifestyle

  [D] contribute something unique

  23. The quotation in Paragraph 4 explains that ______

  [A] gains of technology have been erased

  [B] job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed

  [C] factories are making much less money than before

  [D] new jobs and services have been offered

  24. According to the author, to reduce unemployment, the most important is_____

  [A] to accelerate the I.T. revolution

  [B] to ensure more education for people

  [C] to advance economic globalization

  [D] to pass more bills in the 21st century

  25. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the text?

  [A] New Law Takes Effect

  [B] Technology Goes Cheap

  [C] Average Is Over

  [D] Recession Is Bad

  Text 2

  A century ago, the immigrants from across the Atlantic included settlers and sojourners.

  Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the United States came those

  who had no intention to stay, and 7millin people arrived while about 2 million departed. About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage.

  Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants. We divide newcomers into two categories:

  legal or illegal, good or bad. We hail them as Americans in the making, or our broken immigration system and the long political paralysis over how to fix it. We don’t need more categories, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond strict definitions of legal and illegal. To start, we can recognize the new birds of passage, those living and thriving in the gray areas. We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges.

  Crop pickers, violinists, construction workers, entrepreneurs, engineers, home health-care aides and physicists are among today’s birds of passage. They are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas .They prefer to come and go as   opportunity calls them , They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another.

  With or without permission, they straddle laws, jurisdictions and identities with ease. We need them to imagine the United States as a place where they can be productive for a while without committing themselves to staying forever. We need them to feel that home can be both here and there and that they can belong to two nations honorably.

  Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes on both sides of the immigration battle .Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes. Including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system.

  26 “Birds of passage” refers to those who____.

  [A] immigrate across the Atlantic

  [B] leave their home countries for good

  [C] stay in a foreign temporarily

  [D]find permanent jobs overseas

  27 It is implied in paragraph 2 that the current immigration system in the US ____. [A] needs new immigrant categories

  [B] has loosened control over immigrants

  [C] should be adopted to meet challenges

  [D] has been fixed via political means

  28 According to the author, today’s birds of passage want___

  [A] financial incentives.

  [B] a global recognition.

  [C] opportunities to get regular jobs.

  [D]the freedom to stay and leave.

  29 The author suggests that the birds of passage today should be treated __

  [A] as faithful partners.

  [B] with economic favors.

  [C] with regal tolerance.

  [D]as mighty rivals.

  30 which is the best title of the passage?

  [A] come and go: big mistake

  [B] living and thriving : great risk

  [C] with or without : great risk

  [D]legal or illegal: big mistake

  Text 3

  Scientists have found that although we are prone to snap overreactions, if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react, we can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quick, hard-wired responses.

  Snap decisions can be important defense mechanisms; if we are judging whether someone is dangerous, our brains and bodies are hard-wired to react very quickly, within milliseconds. But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociable, studies show, we need at least a minute, preferably five. It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality, like neuroticism or open-mindedness.But snap decisions in reaction to rapid stimuli aren’t exclusive to the interpersonal realm.

  Psychologists at the University of Toronto found that viewing a fast-food logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent faster, even though reading has little to do with eating.

  We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else we’re doing, Subjects exposed to fast-food flashes also tend to think a musical piece lasts too long.

  Yet we can reverse such influences. If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face (one reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling), we can take a moment before buying. If we know female job screeners are more likely to reject attractive female applicants, we can help screeners understand their biases-or hire outside screeners.

  John Gottman, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly “thin slice” information reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in “thick sliced” long-term study. When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a muck longer evaluation; two days, not two seconds.

  Our ability to mute our hard-wired reactions by pausing is what differentiates us from animals: doge can think about the future only intermittently or for a few minutes. But historically we have spent about 12 percent of our days contemplating the longer term. Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high-speed trend.

  31. The time needed in making decisions may____.

  [A] vary according to the urgency of the situation

  [B] prove the complexity of our brain reaction

  [C] depend on the importance of the assessment

  [D] predetermine the accuracy of our judgment

  32. Our reaction to a fast-food logo shows that snap decisions____.

  [A] can be associative

  [B] are not unconscious

  [C] can be dangerous

  [D] are not impulsive

  33. To reverse the negative influences of snap decisions, we should____.

  [A] trust our first impression

  [B] do as people usually do

  [C] think before we act

  [D] ask for expert advice

  34. John Gottman says that reliable snap reaction are based on____.

  [A] critical assessment

  [B]‘thin sliced’study

  [C] sensible explanation

  [D] adequate information

  35. The author’s attitude toward reversing the high-speed trend is____.

  [A] tolerant

  [B] uncertain

  [C] optimistic

  [D] doubtful

  Text 4

  Europe is not a gender-equality heaven. In particular, the corporate workplace will never be completely family—friendly until women are part of senior management decisions, and Europe’s top corporate-governance positions remain overwhelmingly male. Indeed, women hold only 14 percent of positions on Europe corporate boards.

  The Europe Union is now considering legislation to compel corporate boards to maintain a certain proportion of women-up to 60 percent. This proposed mandate was born of frustration.

  Last year, Europe Commission Vice President Viviane Reding issued a call to voluntary action.

  Reding invited corporations to sign up for gender balance goal of 40 percent female board membership. But her appeal was considered a failure: only 24 companies took it up.

  Do we need quotas to ensure that women can continue to climb the corporate Ladder fairy as they balance work and family?

  “Personally, I don’t like quotas,” Reding said recently. “But i like what the quotas do.” Quotas get action: they “open the way to equality and they break through the glass ceiling,”

  according to Reding, a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions.

  I understand Reding’s reluctance-and her frustration. I don’t like quotas either; they run counter to my belief in meritocracy, government by the capable. Bur, when one considers the obstacles to achieving the meritocratic ideal, it does look as if a fairer world must be temporarily ordered.

  After all, four decades of evidence has now shown that corporations in Europe as the US are evading the meritocratic hiring and promotion of women to top position— no matter how much “soft pressure ” is put upon them. When women do break through to the summit of corporate power--as, for example, Sheryl Sandberg recently did at Facebook—they attract massive attention precisely because they remain the exception to the rule.

  If appropriate pubic policies were in place to help all women—whether CEOs or their children’s caregivers—and all families, Sandberg would be no more newsworthy than any other highly capable person living in a more just society.

  36. In the European corporate workplace, generally_____.

  [A] women take the lead

  [B] men have the final say

  [C] corporate governance is overwhelmed

  [D] senior management is family-friendly

  37. The European Union’s intended legislation is ________. [A] a reflection of gender balance

  [B] a reluctant choice

  [C] a response to Reding’s call

  [D] a voluntary action

  38. According to Reding, quotas may help women ______. [A] get top business positions

  [B] see through the glass ceiling

  [C] balance work and family

  [D] anticipate legal results

  39. The author’s attitude toward Reding’s appeal is one of _________. [A] skepticism

  [B] objectiveness

  [C] indifference

  [D] approval

  40. Women entering top management become headlines due to the lack of ______. [A] more social justice

  [B] massive media attention

  [C] suitable public policies

  [D] greater“soft pressure” Part B

  Directions:

  You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45).Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1. (10points)

  The hugely popular blog the Skint Foodie chronicles how Tony balances his love of good food with living on benefits. After bills, Tony has £60 a week to spend, £40 of which goes on food, but 10 years ago he was earning £130,000 a I year working in corporate communications and eating at London's betft restaurants'" at least twice a week. Then his marriage failed, his career burned out and his drinking became serious. "The community mental health team saved my life.

  And I felt like that again, to a certain degree, when people responded to the blog so well. It gave me the validation and confidence that I'd lost. But it's still a day-by-day thing." Now he's living in a council flat and fielding offers from literary agents. He's feeling positive, but he'll carry on blogging - not about eating as cheaply as you can - "there are so many people in a much worse state, with barely any money to spend on food" - but eating well on a budget. Here's his advice for economical foodies.

  [A] Live like a peasant

  [B] Balance your diet

  [C] Shopkeepers are your friends

  [D] Remember to treat yourself

  [E] Stick to what you need

  [F] Planning is everything

  [G] Waste not, want not

  41._____________________

  Impulsive spending isn't an option, so plan your week's menu in advance, making shopping lists for your ingredients in their exact quantities. I have an Excel template for a week of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Stop laughing: it's not just cost effective but helps you balance your diet. It's also a good idea to shop daily instead of weekly, because, being-human, you'll sometimes change your mind about what you fancy.

  42____________________________________________________________

  This is where supermarkets and their anonymity come in handy. With them, there's not the same embarrassment as when buying one carrot in a little greengrocer. And if you plan properly,you'll know that you only need, say, 350g of shin of beef and six rashers of bacon, not whatever  weight is pre-packed in the supermarket chiller.

  43_________

  You may proudly claim to only have frozen peas in the freezer - that's not good enough.

  Mine is filled with leftovers, bread, stock, meat and fish. Planning ahead should eliminate wastage,but if you have surplus vegetables you'll do a vegetable soup, and all fruits threatening to "go off'will be cooked or juiced.

  44___________________________________

  Everyone says this, but it really is a top tip for frugal eaters. Shop at butchers, delis and fish-sellers regularly, even for small things, and be super friendly. Soon you'll feel comfortable asking if they've any knuckles of ham for soups and stews, or beef bones, chicken carcasses and fish heads for stock which, more often than not, They will let you have for free.

  45__________________

  You won't be eating out a lot, but save your pennies and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch at a good restaurant - £1.75 a week for three months gives you £21 - more than" enough for a three-course lunch at Michelin-starred Arbutus. It's £16.95 there - or £12.99 for a large pizza from Domino's: I know which I'd rather eat.

  Section III Translation

  Directions:

  Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER

  SHEET 2. (15 points)

  I can pick a date from the past 53 years and know instantly where I was, what happened in the news and even the day of the week. I’ve been able to do this since I was four.

  I never feel overwhelmed with the amount of information my brain absorbs my mind seems to be able to cope and the information is stored away reatly. When I think of a sad memory, I do what everyone does- try to put it to one side. I don’t think it’s harder for me just because my memory is clearer. Powerful memory doesn’t make my emotions any more acute or vivid. I can recall the day my grandfather died and the sadness I felt when we went to the hospital the day before. I also remember that the musical play Hair opened on the Broadway on the same day- they both just pop into my mind in the same way.

  Section IV Writing

  47. Suppose your class is to hold a charity sale foe kids in need of help. Write your classmates an email to

  1) inform them about the details and encourage them to participate . 2) Don’t use your own name, use “Li Ming” instead. Don’t write your address.(10 points)

  48 write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should

  1)interpret the chart and

  2)give your comments

  You should write about 150 words

  1.【答案】A(However)

  【解析】空前作者讲到“鉴于电子货币的优势,你也许会认为,我们将快速步入非现金社会,实现完全电子支付。”而空后说“真正的无现金社会很可能不会马上到来”这两句话语义是转折的,因此答案 A。 B. moreover 表递进 C. therefore 表结果 D. Otherwise 表对比

  2.【答案】D (around)

  【解析】由空格所在句的“but” 得知,句子前后是转折关系。事实上,这样的预测已经 二十年了,但迄今还没有实现。A. off 停止 B. back 返回 C. over 结束,与后文均不构成转折,故答案选 D. around 出现。

  3.【答案】B (concept)

  【解析】空格所在的句子意思为例如, 1975 年《商业周刊》预测电子支付手段不久将“彻底改变货币本身的____”将四个选项带入,能够彻底改变的对象只能是金钱的概念(定义),而 A“力量”,C“历史”,D“角色”,语义都不恰当,并且如果选择 role 的话,应该是复数 roles, 因为是金钱的作用不止一个,故答案选 B。

  4.【答案】D (reverse)

  【解析】空格填入的动词跟前面的动词 revolutionize (变革)意思上应该是同义替换的,要选择含有变革,彻底改变意思的词汇,四个选项中 A. reward 奖励 B. 抵抗 C. resume 重新开始,继续,都不合适,只有 D 选项 reverse“颠覆”最为贴切,本句译为“电子支付方式不久将改变货币的定义,并将在数年后颠覆货币本身。” 5.【答案】C (slow)

  【解析】根据前面的句意得知,早在 1975 年就预测了无现金社会将到来,而实际上作者讲到“真正的无现金社会很可能不会马上到来”,因此也得出这种变革是一个缓慢的过程,故答案选择 C。 A. silent 沉寂的,B. sudden 突然的,D. steady 稳定不变的。

  6.【答案】B (against)

  【解析】上一段末句提出本段的论点,即人们进入无现金时代的速度缓慢的原因。因此本段应围绕纸币系统不会消失来阐述。而且由句首的 Although 得知,空格所在句与前一句是转折关系。尽管电子支付手段可能比纸币支付方式更加高效,然而以下几个方面解释了纸币系统“不会”消失的原因,故答案选 B,work against 妨碍,对…产生消极影响。A. work for 为…而工作 C. work with 与…共事,对…起作用 D. work on 从事…工作,对…起作用,都不合适。

  7.【答案】B (expensive)

  【解析】本句陈述的原因都是关于上句提到的传统支付方式的优点,即推广电子支付方式不利之处。所以根据这个基调,得出选项 productive 不对,最后根据空后的内容推理出消极意思的选项 expensive,其他选项意思放到空格处不合理,imaginative,意思是“虚构的、富于想象力的”;sensitive,意思是“敏感的、容易受伤的”。故本题正确答案为 B。

  8.【答案】D(dominant)

  【解析】空格所在句译为...使得电子货币成为____支付方式,将四个选项带入,C, D 是比较恰当的,再结合本文章的主旨,应该选择“占主导地位的,支配地位”这层意思的 D 选项。A.similar 相似的 B. original 原始的,独创的,都不合适。

  9.【答案】B (provide)

  【解析】 纸质支票支付能够____收据,这是和电子支付相比的一大优势,A. collect 收集收据,C. copy 复印收据,D. print 打印收据都和实际生活不符合。应该是 B. provide 提供收据。

  10.【答案】A (give up)

  【解析】该动词短语的宾语是前文的 something, 指代上文的 advantage,纸质支票支付能够提供收据这一优势,肯定是消费者不愿放弃的。和优势相搭配的动词短语不能是 B. take over 接管,也不能是 C. bring back 拿回来,D. pass down 传递、遗传也不符合。A. give up 放弃一种优势,符合语境,为正确答案。

  11. 【答案】A (before)

  【解析】这里考查的是时间连词的应用。句子意思是“在支票兑换成现金之前要花上好几天”,符合句意的只有 before,其它三项都不符合。

  12. 【答案】D (withdrawn)

  【解析】这里考查动词辨义。原文句子意思是“资金是从发卡机构的账户里提取的”,withdraw 有“提款、取款”的意思,这里是指纸币从银行账户中“被取出”故为正确答案。

  13. 【答案】C (Because)

  【解析】这里考查的是连词的应用。从原文可以看出空后的两个句子在意思上存在着因果关系,“因为电子支付是即付的,所以消除了客户的付款”。四个选项中只有 C because 可以表因果,其他三项均不能表因果。故答案为 C。

  14. 【答案】C( raise)

  【解析】 这里考查的是动词辨析以及上下文语义衔接。[A] hide “隐藏,隐瞒”,[B] express “表达,表示”,[C] raise “举起,提高,引发”,[D] ease “减轻,缓和”,四个选项中能和 concerns构成搭配的只有 raise,故正确答案为[C]。

  15.【答案】C.(stored)

  【解析】这句讲了 an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information__________ there. “一些黑客入侵电脑数据库并且更改_____信息”根据空前信息可知是入侵电脑数据库,所以 information 是被储存在电脑数据库中的信息。

  16.【答案】C.(uncommon)

  【解析】此题考查一致性。空格所在句“The fact that this is not an__16_occurrence means that…”中 this 指代上文中 that 从句的内容,即黑客能够获取电脑数据库和更改储存的信息。因此 not an_16_occurrence 应该能体现这一行为的特征,而上文提到“We often hear media reports that…”,其中的 often 正是对这一行为的特征解释,即 not an__occurrence 等于 often 的含义,对比选项,只有 C 选项 uncommon 符合,带入后意为“经常发生的事情”。

  17.【答案】A (steal)

  【解析】本题缺少谓语动词,通过语法结构可以看出,主语是 dishonest persons,并通过后面的其他人的帐户,可以推定为答案是负向的,只有 A steal 符合题意,语义上也说得通,故为正确答案。

  18.【答案】B.(prevention)

  【解析】文章最后一段首句谈论电子付费方式的又一个缺陷:会引起安全和隐私问题。接下来就开始解释这个现象。空格所在句提到“对这种欺诈的_18__绝非易事,而且一个新的电脑科学领域正在形成来_19__安全问题。”因此,本句在谈论对问题的解决应对。18 空格与 19空格所填内容语意上应该是一致的。浏览选项,18 空只能选 prevention,即防止这种欺诈行为发生并非易事,而 C 选项anipulation 是“操纵”的意思,D 选项 justification 意为“解释,证明……合理”,均不合理。

  19.【答案】A.(cope with)

  【解析】此空格解释同 18 空格,应选有“处理,解决”意思的选项,只有 A 选项 cope with合适。B 选项 fight against 意为“对抗,抵制”,而宾语是 security issues,因此不符合。

  20.【答案】D.(trail)

  【解析】此空所在句提出了使用电子付费方式的又一个担心,即会留下__20_,空格后的定语从句解释了空格内容,即它包含大量个人数据。浏览选项,只有 trail 符合,意为“痕迹”。B 碎片从语义上均说不通,C 路径有一定的干扰性,但相比较 D 而言,痕迹更为合适,故为正确答案

  阅读理解:

  21.【答案】A the impact of technological advances

  【解析】 细节理解题。第一段第二行指出笑话是关于纺织厂自动化程度的,后一句具体说明了笑话的内容:工厂平均每天只有两个人,一人一狗。人的工作是喂狗,狗的工作是看机器,暗示了工厂所有的生产工作都是由机器自动完成的。故这个笑话是用来说明技术进步的影响。

  22.【答案】D contribute something unique

  【解析】 事实细节题,通过题干“根据第 3 段,要想成为一个成功的雇员,一个人得……”, 我们可以定位到文章第三段 Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment.意为:因此,人人都需要有另外的价值,异于常人的独特价值能够让他们在各自的雇佣市场上脱颖而出。我们可以得出,题干中“to be a successful employee”与第三段的最后一句话中的“that makes  them stand out in whatever is their field of employment”是同义替换,“everyone needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution”与D选项中的“contribute something unique”是同义替换,所以 D 选项正确。

  23. 【答案】B job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed

  【解析】细节理解题。根据题干定位到第四段,第一句 technology has been eating jobs(技术使工作机会减少)也反映了该段的主旨。而根据题干 quotation 一词,我们读到引号里有“shed workers (解雇工人)”、“roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs-about 6 million in total -disappeared 可推断出 B 选项。

  24. 【答案】B to ensure more education for people

  【解析】细节理解题。根据题干 reduce unemployment 减少失业,可以定位到文章中最后一段,这段出现了与之类似的表达“support employment” 促进就业,而题干表述“the most important”与文章“nothing would be more important than”相对应,指出促进就业最重要的是颁布类似于“G.I.Bill”的法案来保障人们接受高等教育的权利,选项 C 与之吻合,故正确。A项加速信息技术产业变革,C 项促进经济全球化,均未提及,故排除。D 项是干扰项,虽提及要颁布更多法案,但颁布法案的目的实际是为了保障教育,故也排除。

  25.【答案】C Average Is Over

  【解析】主旨大意题,主要考查考生根据文章内容凝练主旨大意的能力。从整个文章的脉络来看,第一段以亚当•大卫森一篇论文中关于现代工厂自动化与仅需要一人一狗两个员工的一则笑话,揭示了科技进步给人们带来的影响。第二、三段是科技的进步引起工厂自动化水平提高,普通员工如果没有竞争力和突出优势,就很容易失去工作,因此也对员工提出了更高的要求(extra-unique value contribution)。第四段就是员工只有不断地提高自己的教育水平,才能让自己脱颖而出。最后一段点明主题,average is officially over。由此可见,全文一直在围绕这一宏观主线展开,这一主线也统领全文,所以正确答案为 C。

  26.【答案】C stay in a foreign temporarily

  【解析】词义猜测题。根据题干,首先定位到首段 birds of passage 是前面一句中的 1/4 的意大利移民的昵称,他们只在美国居住了一段时间,但最终还是返回意大利。A 项的内容在首段首句有提及,但是它突出强调的是横跨大西洋的移民,这也是一世纪前的情况,而如今birds of passage 可能来自世界各个角落,并非局限于大西洋两岸。B 项与段意不符,D 项文中未提及。

  27.【答案】C should be adopted to meet challenges

  【解析】推理判断题。根据题干可定位到第二段。解题关键可定位到“…, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond stick definitions of legal and illegal.…We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges.” 意为“我们需要改变的是关于分类的思考方式,突破合法和非法的严格限制。首先承认短暂移民者的存在,然后解决移民问题面临的挑战。” C 项高度总结了以上几点。A 项与原文意思不符。B、D 项在文中未提及。

  28.【答案】D the freedom to stay and leave

  【解析】事实细节题。根据题干,可定位到第三段。解题关键在于对“They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them .They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another.”的理解。意为“他们跟着机会走,来去自如。他们可以在一个地方立业,在另一个地方成家”。强调的是工作机会,而不在乎工作地点。D 项是句意的高度概括。A 项是对原文的片面理解,吸引短暂移民者的不仅仅是来自金钱的激励(financial incentives),还有工作机会和工作理念。B 项在文中未提及。C 项中的 regular jobs(一般工作)在文中未提及,是对文意的曲解。

  29.【答案】C with legal tolerance

  【解析】推理判断题。根据题干可定位到第五段。题干问到“根据作者的意思,我们(美国)应该怎样对待这些短暂移民者?”在本段中,作者写道我们应该“Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding…意思是“我们应该超越移民合法性方面的文化之争,重现看待中间地段,充分意识到当今的移民管理体系需要各种途径,从而取得多样化的结果,来解决现今移民体系下用法律手段很难解决的问题”,暗含了 C 项中的 tolerance 也就是对 multiple paths and multiple outcomes 的改写。A、B和 D 项在文中未提及。

  30.【答案】D legal or illegal: big mistake

  【解析】主旨大意题。文章第二段中提出“我们把新移民分成两类:合法移民和不合法移民”,同时作者认为“我们不需要局限于合法与不合法这样严格的定义”,这说明了从合法和不合法角度对于移民的分类是错误的。另外,文章最后一段最后一句“包括在现行的移民体系中不容易合法的实现的一些事情”也反映了文章的中心。即,从合法和不合法角度对于移民的分类是错误的。A 项谈到短暂移民者的移动是个错误,偏离了文章主旨。B 和 C 项说的是 risk,文中并未提及。

  31.【答案】 D predetermine the accuracy of our judgment

  【解析】细节理解题。 文章第一段提到“如果我们在做出反应之前花点儿时间来思考,那么将会减少甚至消除我们快速反应所带来的负面影响”,也就是说我们做决定所花的时间决定了我们判断的准确性。文章第二段第二句话也隐含本题正确答案线索。第二句以 But 这一转折连词引导,应该重点关注其后表达的信息,“但是,我们需要更多的时间来评估其他要素。” 而本段的第三、四句则明显地揭示出本题正确答案,尤其是第三个句子中的“accurately” 一词。选项D中的表达“可预先决定判断的准确性”,此外,此选项中的“accuracy” 为“accurately ” 的同词异形,故此项为正确答案。选项 A 和 B 属于无中生有,选项 C “取决于评估的重要性” 与原文不符合。

  32.【答案】A can be associative

  【解析】细节理解题。由题干的 fast-food logo 我们可以定位到第三段。第二段说处理人际关系问题时人们会仓促决定,第三段开头部分说到“让人做出仓促决定的刺激因素不仅限于际关系范围内。紧接着说人们对快餐商标的反应速度比一般阅读速度快。下一句则阐述了原因:因为人们无意识地(unconsciously)将“快餐”与“速度”和“心急”联系在一起,并将这些冲动付诸行动”。A 项“决定是有联系性的”正确,因为人们将“快餐”与“速度”,“心急”联系在了一起。B 项“决定是无意识的”与原文意思相反。C 项“决定是危险的”,原文未提及。D 项“决定是不冲动”与原文意思相悖。

  33.【答案】C think before we act

  【解析】细节理解题。根据题干定位到第四段。第四段通过两个例子说明我们应该怎样克服负面影响,第一个例子表示“如果我们会对消费产品或者房产选择做出“过度反应”,我们可以在购买之前先思考一会儿”,由此可说明我们应该在行动之前先思考来消除负面影响,因选择答案 C。

  34.【答案】D adequate information

  【解析】细节理解题。根据题干 John Gottman 定位到全文倒数第二段:John Gottman, the marriage expert, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly” thin slice” …“婚姻专家约翰.古德曼解释说,我们快速反应的信息的可靠性是建立在这样的快速反应的行为是以长期的研究基础而做出的快速反应行为”。其中 ground 是题干中 base on 的同义替换,long-term study“长期的研究”与 D 选项 adequate information 相互呼应。

  35.【答案】C optimistic

  【解析】作者态度题。末段最后两句:Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature…“尽管技术可能改变我们反应的方式,但是它并没有改变我们的本性。我们仍然有能力去克服诱惑并扭转这种高速度的趋势”可知,作者的态度是非常确定的,因此 B 选项 uncertain(不确定)首先排除;We still have the imaginative capacity…表明作者对于我们的能力是有信心的。optimistic 最为恰当。

  36.【答案】B men have the final say

  【解析】细节理解题。根据题干 corporate workplace 定位到首段,本段中谈到,说欧洲性别不平等,in particular 进一步指出 corporate workplace,说明工作中性别尤其不平等。紧接着说欧洲公司高管职位 remain overwhelmingly male,说明以男性为主导。Indeed 进一步解释,指出女性在欧洲公司董事会只占有 14%的席位。所以,B 选项是基于首段信息给出的推论。

  A 项 women take the lead 和 D 项 senior management is family-friendly 都与原文相反;C 选项是对文章 overwhelm 这个词出的干扰项。

  37.【答案】A a reflection of gender balance

  【解析】细节理解题。根据题干定位到第二段首句,intended legislation 是对 is now considering legislation 的同义改写。该句意为“欧洲国家现在考虑立法来迫使公司董事让妇女的比例达到60%”,因此立法是为了保持性别的平衡。B 选项的 reluctant 是对 Reding’s reluctance 出的干扰项,并不是说 European Union 的立法。C 选项 a response to Reding’s call 不正确,Reding 号召的是 voluntary action, D 也是干扰项,而真正的立法缘由是对 gender balance 的反思。

  38.【答案】A get top business positions

  【解析】细节理解题。定位至第 4 段,Reding 说自己不喜欢 quotas,后面出现了 but,他真正的观点在 but 之后,他说他喜欢 quotas 所做的事情,即 get action,后面的冒号是对 get action 的解释。核心的答案在 a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions。a result 是前面内容的同位语,进一步补充说明,所以选 A。B 项 see through the glass ceiling 是对原文 break through the glass ceiling 的望文生义,属于肤浅选项,也和原文意思不符。C 和 D 选项属于无中生有。

  39.【答案】D approval

  【解析】作者态度题。本题问的是作者对 Reding 的呼吁的态度。Reding 的 appeal 最早出现在第 2 段,即呼吁在董事会中有 40%的女性,以实现性别均衡。而第四段再一次提到 Reding 的观点即“他自己也不喜欢 quotas,但是 quotas 本身确实起到了作用”;接着作者在第五段给出了自己的观点,先是说可以理解 Reding,自己本身也不喜欢 quotas,但是“既然现在meritocratic ideal(精英管理的理想)有障碍,确实需要一种强制的手段,即强制设定男女比例。”所以可以看出作者是持“赞成”的态度。

  40.【答案】C suitable public policies

  【解析】细节理解题。题干中的 women entering top management become headlines 是对 when women do break through to the summit of the corporate power 的同义改写,become headlines 是对后面 for example 所举的 Sheryl Sandberg 的事例的概括。答案出现在第 7 段“If appropriate pubic choices were in place to help all women, ...Sandberg would be no more newsworthy...”,这个句子是 if 虚拟条件句,是对未来的一种美好展望,也是提出观点的一种方式,意为“如果有合理的公共政策来帮助所有的女性,Sandberg 也就没有报道价值了”。

  新题型

  41.【答案】F Planning is everything

  【解析】段落首句谈到“Impulsive spending isn’t an option, so plan your work’s menu in advance...”,其表达的含义是:冲动消费不是一个好的选择,所以提前计划你一周的菜单,为你所需材料的具体数量做一个购物清单。首句中出现了因果逻辑关联词 so,而下文又没有出现明显转折,因此首句是本段的中心句。文章进而提及作者为此专门做一个 Excel 表格,并且认为这样做不仅花钱少并且有助于均衡饮食。显然文章的中心在于首句谈到的“plan”,而中心不是选项 B 表达的“balance your diet”,故答案为 F。

  42.【答案】E Stick to what you need

  【解析】段落第二句话中的代词“them”指代第一句中的“supermarkets and their anonymity”。该句通过这一指代顺接第一句,表达了一个否定的含义,即你不需要在小贩那里感到尴尬。紧接着第三句用肯定的语气指出“if you plan properly, you’ll know that you only need... 350g of shin of beef... ”即如果你合理的规划,你就会清楚知道你想要什么,比如你只需要 350 克牛肉。作者通过语义上层层递进的方式指出了这一段的中心:你需要什么就买什么,要对你所 需要购买的东西的分量要坚持。因此选项 E 为正确选项。

  43.【答案】G Waste not, want not

  【解析】本段内容首先谈到“你可能骄傲的说冰箱里只有冷冻的青豆,但是这还不够”。这句话中虽然没有明显的转折词,但在语义上属于隐性转折,因此段落的重点应该在后面。第二句提到“Mine is filled with...”,其中 Mine 等于 my freezer,通过指代顺接上一句话。接着第三句前半句指出“提前做好计划可以避免浪费”,后半句具体陈述了怎样避免浪费。其中“eliminate wastage”与选项 G 中的“waste not”构成同义替换。虽然该句中出现了 planning, 但是本段的主要内容是谈到对于剩余的食物要尽可能充分利用,从而避免浪费。所以选项 G谈到“不浪费,不愁缺”为正确选项。

  44.【答案】C Shopkeepers are your friends

  【解析】该段首句的句内出现转折,重点在转折之后。第一句 but 转折之后提到“it really is a top tip”,即这真的是一个好的提议。那么首先要还原 it 所指代的内容。句前没有提供信息,句后第二句提到“shop at tchers,...regularly, ..and be super friendly”。其中“be friendly”通过词性转换和选项 C 中的“are your friends”够成同义替换。同时,最后一句具体的信息描述了购

  物时表现出友好的态度所带来的好处:they will let you have for free(通常他们都会免费给你)可知,C 最为合适。

  45.【答案】D Remember to treat yourself

  【解析】该段首句句内出现转折,重点在转折之后。第一句 but 后提到“save your pennies and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch”,其表达的含义是要节省钱,但可以每几个月款待自己一次。而该句也是本段落的中心句。段落余下的信息都是在用数据来解释这个道理。选项 D 中出现了“treat yourself”,属于原词复现。

  翻译:

  (第一段)我能从过去的 53 年中挑选一个时间,并且立即知道我(那时)所处的位置,(那时)新闻中发生的事件,甚至那天是星期几。我具有这种能力可以追溯到我 4 岁的时候。

  (第二段)对于我大脑接收的信息,我从来没有感到难以把握。我的大脑似乎能够处理(一切信息),而且这些信息都被有条理的保存。当我想到悲伤的事情,我像其他所有人一样, 努力把它们放到一边(以免影响我)。就是因为我的记忆是比较清晰有条理的,所以,我认为那些信息(对我来说)都不很困难。我强大的记忆力没有让我的情绪变得更敏感或者更真切。我能(清晰地)回忆起我祖父过世的那天的情景以及祖父去世前我们大家去医院看望他时的悲伤。我还能(清晰地)记得同一天在 Broadway 上演的音乐剧《头发》——它们都同样地在我的脑海长久不衰。

  写作

  PART A

  命题解析

  2013 年英语(二)小作文第四次考察了书信这一题型。属于写给同学的私人倡议信(并非告示)。值得注意的是,从 2012 年开始,考研命题组与时俱进,英语(一)及(二)小作文命题不再使用日常生活中已很少使用的 letter,而是替换为大家耳熟能详的 e-mail 形式。其实没有本质区别,最新大纲仍定义为“私人或公务信函”,写法完全一样。

  众所周知,人们生活与工作中均需使用 e-mail, 故 e-mail 也分为私人与公务两种。私人书信稍微随便一些,可使用 3-5 次缩写、省略句或口语表达等非正式语言;公务书信稍微正式一些,最好不要使用非正式语言。

  2005 年考研开考小作文以来,从未考过倡议信,2013 年首开先河。但这话题属于考研写作四大必考话题之“社会热点“(社会公德/爱心),这一话题迄今已考察四次:1995 年提纲作文“希望工程”、2001 年图画作文“爱心是一盏灯”、2006 年小作文“给希望工程捐款”。

  在 2012 年新东方在线网络课堂中,均提供了关于爱心的大量大小作文范文。几乎全文 均可使用。

  考研写作要求采用缩进式:段间不空行,每段首行缩进四个字母。由于是写给同学的半正式文体,应写“Dear Fellow Students,或 Dear Students,”等较为随意的称呼。首段可进行自我介绍(可以是班长)、表明写作目的(倡议大家参加慈善义卖);次段应展开具体细节:

  详细介绍义卖情况;尾段应再次呼吁。落款应使用“Yours ncerely,”或“Yours faithfully,”

  等私人落款,不宜写“Yours truly,”等公务落款,签名切勿写自己的真实姓名,应用“Li Ming”代替。

  由于小作文答题卡很小,很多考生将结尾客套及签名挤在同一行或写在空格以下,无需担心,电脑可以扫描到,不会因此取得低分。很多考生并未按照以上要求去写,也无须过于担心,写法有很多种,法无定法、万法归宗。只要切题同时语言简洁、地道,均可取得不错的成绩。

  One possible version:

  Dear Fellow Classmates,

  Our class is to hold a charity sale to raise money for those children who are in need of help on January 5, 2013. As the monitor of our class, I’m calling on all students to take part in it.

  We ask you to donate as much as you can to a fund we have set up to cover their tuition fees and other expenses. Unless we can raise sufficient money, those poor kids won’t be able to afford their education and finish school.

  As a nation renowned in the world for many of its virtues, we Chinese people have been giving a helping hand to those who are in distress throughout history. It’s our duty to provide

  as much support as we can in this hour of need. Please contribute generously.

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  参考译文

  亲爱的同学们:

  我们班将在 2013 年 1 月 5 日举办一场慈善义卖,为需要帮助的孩子们募集资金。作为班长,我在这里号召大家积极参加。

  我们已经设立了支付他们学杂费的基金,请大家尽自己所能捐献自己的爱心。只有我们募集足够的资金,那些可怜的孩子们才能上得起学并完成学业。

  作为一个以很多美德闻名于世的国家,我们中国人民从古至今都一直乐于助人。在这个紧要关头,大家一定要尽力帮助他们。最后,请大家慷慨相助。

  Part B

  命题解析

  2013 年考研英语(二)大作文第四次考察了图表作文,题目偏易。在 2010/2011 考察“经济类”话题、2012 考察“管理类”话题之后,13 年考察了考研写作四大必考话题之“教育文化类”,主题是“某高校学生的兼职情况”。

  在 2012 年新东方在线网络课堂的强化班、冲刺班、点睛班中,均讲解了“教育类”范文,尤其重点讲解了 2006 年 MBA 写作真题图表作文“工程硕士招生”和 2008 年 MBA 写作真题“成人高考”。考生如认真听过以上课程并认真研读过讲义中的范文,13 年大作文并不难写,很多表达均可使用。

  本文首段应描述图表,首句应进行总体描述,点出“主题”(兼职情况)及“对象”(某高校学生)。其次应进行细节描述:大一至大三缓慢增加、大四急剧增加,并说明具体数据。

  首段无需发表议论。次段应进行利弊说明,详细阐明大学生兼职的利与弊,并给出充分的原因来支持论点,也可使用举例、正反等多种论证手段。尾段应进行归纳结论或提出建议措施:只要大学生扬长避短、趋利避害,兼职将利大于弊。

  鉴于考研写作“语言第一位、结构第二位、内容第三位”,阅卷教师最重视的还是考生的真实语言水平,身为大学英语系教师的阅卷老师可谓一目了然。本文阐明大学生兼职利大于弊、弊大于利或各有利弊均可,只要能够自圆其说即可,观点无所谓正确错误之分。只要语言地道、结构清晰、内容切题,均可取得理想成绩。

  我们在课程中提倡考生“背诵、默写、仿写”考研写作经典范文,目的就是扎扎实实提高英语实力和写作水平,在考场上融会贯通,以不变应万变。无论命题如何变化,真实的语言功底才是取得写作高分的关键!即使侥幸押题成功,如果众多考生使用同样的范文或现场发挥部分错误百出,仍然取得低分。在现今急功近利、庸俗浮躁、哗众取宠的社会,静心提高才是提高写作分数的唯一出路。

  鉴于网上答案错误百出,自己估分往往并不准确。希望考生务必向报考院校研究生院或研招办咨询查分,了解自己的写作及各单项真实成绩。成绩才是检验写作学习效果的最好方法!

  One possible version:

  The column chart clearly reveals the statistics of students taking part-time jobs in a certain university. According to the survey, there has been a steady increase from 67.77% to 71.93% for students holding temporary jobs from freshmen to juniors, while the percentage of seniors working part-time jumped markedly to 88.24%.

  While part-time employment does have the potential to negatively affect a college student’s studies, it can also be a force for good in their academic careers. The most obvious way that having a part-time job can adversely affect students’studies is by becoming a drain on the their time. Another way that part time employment can be detrimental to students is by reducing the perceived incentive to study. Despite presenting certain pitfalls, working part-time during one’s college years also offer several potential benefits. For one, it can help students to better understand their preferences or to “test out” a possible career direction.

  Additionally, companies seeking to recruit recent grads will give preference to those with real-world experience.

  In the end, the impact of a part-time job on student’s academic career depends on the student’s ability to maintain focus and balance his or her own time. If students are able to effectively manage their time and secure a part-time position in a field related to their studies or interests, the job is certain to yield a positive impact.

  参考译文

  这幅柱状图清晰显示了某高校学生兼职情况的数据。根据调查,从大一到大三,兼职学生从 67.77%缓慢上升到 71.93%,而大四兼职学生的百分比则急剧上升到 88.24%。

  尽管做兼职可能会对大学生的学习有些影响,但能在求学阶段做点兼职也会有不少好处。兼职影响学业的主要问题就是耽误时间。不利影响的另一发面就是会减少学生已有的学习动力。尽管提到了某些弊端,但在大学阶段做兼职还是有很多好处的。首先,兼职能让学生更好地了解自己的喜好或检验一种可能的职业方向。其次,那些招聘新近毕业生的公司都会偏爱有实际社会经验的大学生。

  总之,兼职对大学生学业是否有影响取决于他们能否分清重点及平衡时间。假如他们能有效管理自己的时间,找到一个符合自己专业和兴趣的兼职岗位,那么做兼职必定是有益的。

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