Paper One试卷一（90 minutes）
Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension（20 minutes，15 points）（略）
Part Ⅱ Vocabulary（15 minutes，15 points）
Directions：In this section there are fifteen sentences，each with one word or phrase underlined . Choose the one from the four choices marked A，B，C and D that best keeps the meaning of the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
16. Courageous people think quickly and act without hesitation.
A. complaint B. consideration C. delay D. anxiety
17. I’ve only recently explored Shakespeare with profit and pleasure.
A. followed B. evaluated C. acted D. studied
18. Hardly a week goes by without some advance in technology that would have seemed incredible 50 yeas ago.
A. hard to invent B. hard to understand
C. hard to imagine D. hard to believe
19. You have to pay a （n） premium for express delivery.
A. extra charge B. extra price C. extra tip D. extra bonus
20. Arriving anywhere with these possessions，he might just as easily put up for a month or a year for a single day.
A. arrange B. manage C. last D. stay
21. The salesman approached the house cautiously when he saw the vicious dog at the door.
A. carefully B. deliberately C. nervously D. bravely
22. A new technological process may be employed to tap this abundant supply directly.
A. produce B. reserve C. exploit D. search
23. An international treaty signed several years ago bans trade in plants and animal of endangered species.
A. forbids B. eliminates C. promotes D. protects
24. It is not easy to remain tranquil when events suddenly change your life.
A. calm B. upset C. steady D. severe
25. When faced with doubts from some advisers on the attempted invasion，Kennedy ignored them.
A. failed to understand B. put up with
C. stood up for D. refused to consider
Directions：In this section，there are ten incomplete sentences. For each sentence there are four choices marked A，B，C and D. Choose the one answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
26. Don’t_____while I’m talking. You can ask what you want later.
A. cut out B. cut in C. cut off D. cut down
27. He misled management by giving it the idea that the older and more experienced men were not an_____but a liability.
A. assistance B. advantage C. asset D. award
28. In 400 A.D. Chinese children played with a fan-like toy that span upwards and fell back to earth as_____ceased.
A. rotation B. suspension C. emission D. motivation
29. As a good photographer，you must develop an awareness of the world around you and the people who_____ it.
A. innovate B. inhabit C. integrate D. inherit
30. Children in the United States are exposed to many influences_____those of their families.
A. rather than B. better than C. more than D. other than
31. The fact that the earth’s surface heats_____provides a convenient way to divide it into temperature regions.
A. unsteadily B. unevenly C. infrequently D. irregularly
32. You may never experience an earthquake or a volcanic eruption in your life，but you will____ changes in the land.
A. adapt B. adopt C. witness D. define
33. It is understood that the filming of Legends is almost complete and the film is not _____ to be delayed.
A. easy B. available C. great D. likely
34. The first step before making any decision to_____was to determine exactly who did the killing.
A. interact B. integrate C. intervene D. intensify
35. The television station is supported by_____from foundations and other sources.
A. donations B. advertisements C. pensions D. accounts
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension（45 minutes，30 points）
Directions：There are six passages in this part. Each passage is followed by five questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A，B，C and D. Choose the best answer and mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
Lateral thinking（迂回思维），first described by Edward de Bone in 1967，is just a few years older than Edward’s son. You might imagine that Caspar was raised to be an adventurous thinker，but the de Bone was so famous，Caspar’s parents worried that any time he would say something bright at school，his teachers might snap，“Where do you get that idea from？”
“We had to be careful and not overdo it.”Edward admits. Now Caspar is at Oxford-which once looked unlikely because he is also slightly dyslexic（诵读困难）. In fact，when he was applying to Oxford，none of his school teachers thought he had a chance.“So then we did several thinking sessions,”his father says，“using my techniques and，when he went up for the exam，he did extremely well.”Soon after，Edward de Bone decided to write his latest book，“Teach Your Child How to Think”，in which he transforms the thinking skills he developed for brain-storming businessmen into informal exercises for parents and children to share.
Thinking is traditionally regarded as something executed in a logical sequence，and everybody knows that children aren’t very logical. So isn’t it an uphill battle，trying to teach them to think？“You know，”Edward de Bone says，“if you examine people’s thinking，it is quite unusual to find faults of logic. But the faults of perception are huge！Often we think ineffectively because we take too limited a view.”
“Teach Your Child How to Think”offers lessons in perception improvement，of clearly seeing the implications of something you are saying and exploring the alternatives.
36. What is TRUE about Caspar？
A. He first described lateral thinking. B. He is often scolded by his teacher.
C. He is Edward’s son. D. He is an adventurous thinker.
37. Caspar succeeded in applying to Oxford because .
A. he used in the exam the techniques provided by his father
B. he read the book“Teach Your Child How to think”before the exam
C. he was careful and often overworked
D. all of his school teachers thought he had a chance
38. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that Edward .
A. was prompted to study lateral thinking because his son was slightly dyslexic
B. once taught businessmen how to think before he wrote for parents and children
C. was likely to improve children’s logic with his book
D. gave a description of lateral thinking several years after his son was born
39. According to Paragraph 3，which of the following statements expresses Edward de Bone’s view？
A. We often think ineffectively because we take too limited a view.
B. Thinking is traditionally regarded as something executed in a logical sequence.
C. Everybody knows that children aren’t very logical.
D. It is an uphill battle trying to teach children to think.
40. Lateral thinking refers to the following EXCEPT .
A. seeing the implications of what you are saying
B. exploring the alternatives for what you are saying
C. improving one’s logic in thinking
D. improving one’s perception in thinking
For millions of years before the appearance of the electric light，shift work，all-night cable TV and the Internet，earth’s creatures evolved on a planet with predictable and reassuring 24-hour rhythms. Our biological clocks are set for this daily cycle. Simply，our bodies want to sleep at night and be awake during the day. Most women and men need between eight and eight and a half hours of sleep a night to function properly throughout their lives.（Contrary to popular belief，humans don’t need less sleep as they age.）
But on average，Americans sleep only about seven and a half hour per night，a marked drop from the nine hours they averaged in 1910. What’s worse，nearly one third of all Americans get less than six hours of sleep on a typical work night. For most people，that’s not nearly enough.
Finding ways to get more and better sleep can be a challenge. Scientists have identified more than 80 different sleep disorders. Some sleeping disorders are genetic. But many problems are caused by staying up late and by traveling frequently between time zone or by working nights. Dr. James F. Jones at National Jewish Medical and Research Center in Denver says that sleep disorders are often diagnosed as other discomforts. About one third of the patients referred to him with possible chronic fatigue syndrome actually have treatable sleep disorders.“Before we do anything else，we look at their sleep.”Jones says.
Sleep experts say that most people would benefit from a good look at their sleep patterns.“My motto（座右铭）is‘Sleep defensively’.”says Mary Carskadon of Brown University. She says people need to carve out sufficient time to sleep，even if it means giving up other things. Sleep routines-like going to bed and getting up at the same time every day-are important. Pre-bedtime activities also make a difference. As with Elsner，who used to suffer from sleeplessness，a few life style changes—avoiding stimulants and late meals，exercising hours before bedtime，relaxing with a hot bath—yield better sleep.
41. What is TRUE of human sleep？
A. On average，people in the U. S. today sleep less per night than they used to.
B. For most people，less than six hours of sleep on a typical work night is enough.
C. Most people need less sleep when they grow older.
D. Most people need seven and a half hems of sleep every night.
42. For our bodies to function properly，we should .
A. adjust our activities to the new inventions
B. be able to predict the rhythms of our biological clocks
C. sleep for at least eight hours per night
D. believe that we need less sleep as we age
43. According to the author，many sleeping disorders are caused by .
A. improper sleep patterns B. chronic fatigue syndrome
C. other diseases D. pre-bedtime exercises
44. Which of the following measures can help you sleep better？
A. Having late meals. B. Traveling between time zones.
C. Staying up late. D. Taking a hot bath.
45. “Sleep defensively”means that .
A. people should sacrifice other things to getting enough sleep if necessary
B. people should give up going to bed and getting up at the same time every day
C. people should go to a doctor and have their problems diagnosed
D. people should exercise immediately before going to bed every night
The media can impact current events. As a graduate student at Berkeley in the 1960s，I remember experiencing the events related to the People’s Park that were occurring on campus. Some of these events were given national media coverage in the press and on TV. I found it interesting to compare my impressions of what was going on with perceptions obtained from the news media. I could begin to see events of that time feed on news coverage. This also provided me with some healthy insights into the distinctions between these realities.
Electronic media are having a greater impact on the people’s lives every day. People gather more and more of their impressions from representations. Television and telephone communications are linking people to a global village，or what one writer calls the electronic city. Consider the information that television brings into your home every day. Consider also the contact you have with others simply by using telephone. These media extend your consciousness and your contact. For example，the video coverage of the 1989 San Francisco earthquake focused on“live action”such as the fires or the rescue efforts. This gave the viewer the impression of total disaster. Television coverage of the Iraqi War also developed an immediacy. CNN reported events as they happened. This coverage was distributed worldwide. Although most people were far away from these events，they developed some perception of these realities.
In 1992，many people watched in horror as riots broke out on a sad Wednesday evening in Los Angeles，seemingly fed by video coverage from helicopters. This event was triggered by the verdict（裁定）in the Rodney King beating. We are now in an age where the public can have access to information that enables it to make its own judgments，and most people，who had seen the video of this beating，could not understand how the jury（陪审团）was able to acquit（宣布无罪）the policemen involved. Media coverage of events as they occur also provides powerful feedback that influences events. This can have harmful results，as it seemed on that Wednesday night in Los Angeles. By Friday night the public got to see Rodney King on television pleading，“Can we all get along？”By Saturday，television seemed to provide positive feedback as the Los Angeles riot turned out into a rally for peace. The television showed thousands of people marching with banners and cleaning tools. Because of that，many more people turned out to join the peaceful event they saw unfolding（展开）on television. The real healing，of course，will take much longer，but electronic media will continue to be a part of that process.
46. The best title for the passage is .
A. The 1989 San Francisco Earthquake and the 1992 Los Angeles Riots
B. How Media Cover Events
C. The 1992 Los Angeles Riots
D. The Impact of Media on Current Events
47. All the following statements are true EXCEPT that .
A. all the events occurring on the university campus at Berkeley were given national media coverage
B. video coverage of the 1989 San Francisco earthquake gave the viewers the impression of total disaster
C. electronic media can extend one’s contact with the world
D. those living far away from a certain event can also have some perception of realities by watching television
48. The term“electronic city”in Paragraph 2 refers to .
A. Berkeley B. Earth
C. Los Angeles D. San Francisco
49. The 1992 Los Angeles riots broke out because .
A. video coverage from helicopters had made people angry
B. video coverage had provided powerful feedback
C. the jury acquitted the policemen who had beaten Rodney King
D. people can make their own judgements
50. It can be inferred from the passage that .
A. the 1992 Los Angeles riots lasted a whole week
B. Rodney King seemed very angry when he appeared on television on Friday
C. media coverage of events as they occur can have either good or bad results
D. most people who had seen the video of the Rodney King beating agree with the verdict of the jury
At the Kyoto conference on global warming in December 1997，it became abundantly clear how complex it has become to work out international agreements relating to the environment because of economic concerns unique to each country. It is no longer enough to try to forbid certain activities or to reduce emissions of certain substances. The global challenges of the interlink between the environment and development increasing bring us to the core of the economic life of states. During the late 1980s we were able，through international agreements，to make deep cuts in emissions harmful to the ozone layer. These reductions were made possible because substitutions had been found for many of the harmful chemicals and，more important，because the harmful substances could be replaced without negative effects on employment and the economies of states.
Although the threat of global warming has been known to the world for decades and all countries and leaders agree that we need to deal with the problem，we also know that the effects of measures，especially harsh measures taken in some countries，would be nullified（抵消）if other countries do not control their emissions. Whereas the UN team on climate change has found that the emissions of carbon dioxide would have to be cut globally by 60% to stabilize the content of CO，in the atmosphere，this path is not feasible for several reasons. Such deep cuts would cause a breakdown of the world economy. Important and populous（人口众多的）low-or medium-income countries are not yet willing to undertake legal commitments about their energy uses. In addition，the state of world technology would not yet permit us to make such a big leap.
We must，however，find a solution to the threat of global warming early in the 21st century. Such a commitment would require a degree of shared vision and common responsibilities new to humanity. Success lies in the force of imaginations，in imagining what would happen if we fail to act. Although many living in cold regions would welcome the global-warming effect of a warmer summer，few would cheer the arrival of the subsequent tropical diseases，especially where there had been none.
51. The main purpose of this passage is to .
A. analyze the problem of global warming
B. argue against making deep cuts in emissions
C. convince people that global warming is a real threat
D. criticize some countries for refusing to cut down emissions harmful to the ozone layer
52. The reason why it is difficult to get rid of the threat of global warming is that .
A. not all the countries are willing to make deep cuts in emissions
B. many people welcome the global-warming effect of a warmer summer
C. the leaders of many countries are not fully aware of the gravity of the problem
D. world technology is not able to solve the problem
53. In the passage the author implies that .
A. the world has recently become aware of the threat of global warming
B. the problem of global warming has largely been solved
C. it is always difficult to work out international agreements to cut down emission harmful to the ozone layer
D. it is no longer easy to reach international agreements relating to the environment
54. According to the author，it is impossible at present to cut 60% of carbon dioxide emissions globally because .
A. some people are irresponsible
B. it would cause a collapse of the world economy
C. it is only a goal to be reached in the future
D. some people are lacking in imagination
55. What should all countries do to help solve the problem of global warming？
A. They should hold another world conference on climate change.
B. They should provide advanced technology.
C. They should replace all the harmful substances.
D. They should willingly undertake legal commitments about their energy uses.
The word science is heard so often in modern times that almost everybody has some notion of its meaning. On the other hand，its definition is difficult for many people. The meaning of the term is confused，but everyone should understand its meaning and objectives. Just to make the explanation as simple as possible，suppose science is defined as classified knowledge （facts）.
Even in the true sciences distinguishing fact from fiction is not always easy. For this reason great care should be taken to distinguish between beliefs and truths. There is no danger as long as a clear difference is made between temporary and proved explanations. For example，hypotheses（假设）and theories are attempts to explain natural phenomena. From these positions the scientist continues to experiment and observe until they are proved or discredited（使不相信）. The exacts status of any explanation should be clearly labeled to avoid confusion.
The objectives of science are primarily the discovery and the subsequent understanding of the unknown. Man cannot be satisfied with recognizing that secrets exist in nature or that questions are unanswerable；he must solve them. Toward that end specialists in the field of biology and related fields of interest are directing much of their time and energy.
Actually，two basic approaches lead to the discovery of new information. One，aimed at satisfying curiosity，is referred to as pure science. The other is aimed at using knowledge for specific purpose—for instance，improving health，raising standards of living，or creating new consumer products. In this case knowledge is put to economic use. Such an approach is referred to as applied science.
Sometimes practical-minded people miss the point of pure science in thinking only of its immediate application for economic rewards. Chemists responsible for many of the discoveries could hardly have anticipated that their findings would one day result in applications of such a practical nature as those directly related to life and death. The discovery of one bit of information opens the door to the discovery of another. Some discoveries seem so simple that one is amazed they were not made years ago；however，one should remember that the construction of the microscope had to precede the discovery of the cell. The host of scientists dedicating their lives to pure science are not apologetic（抱歉）about ignoring the practical side of their discoveries；they know from experience that most knowledge is eventually applied.
56. To define science we may simply call it .
A. the study of unrelated fields
B. classified knowledge
C. the study of unrelated subjects
D. an attempt to explain natural phenomena
57. Pure science，leading to the construction of a microscope， .
A. is not always as pure as we suppose
B. necessarily results from applied science and the discovery of a cell
C. may lead to antiscientific，“impure”results
D. necessarily precedes applied science，leading to the discovery of the cell
58. A scientist interested in adding to our general knowledge about oxygen would probably call his approach .
A. pure science B. environmental science
C. applied science D. agricultural science
59. Which of the following statements does the author imply？
A. In science，it is not difficult to distinguish fact from fiction.
B. Practical-minded people can understand the meaning and objectives of pure science.
C. Scientists engaged in the theoretical research should not be blamed for ignoring the practical side of their discoveries.
D. Today few people have any nation of the meaning of science.
60. The best title for the passage is .
A. Hypotheses and Theories B. On Distinguishing Fact from Fiction
C. The Nature of Science and Scientists D. Biology and the Scientific Age
With the possible exception of equal rights，perhaps the most controversial issue across the United States today is the death penalty. Many argue that it is an effective deterrent（威慑）to murder，while others maintain there is no convincing evidence that the death penalty reduces the number of murders.
The principal argument advanced by those opposed to the death penalty，basically，is that it is cruel and inhuman punishment，that it is the mark of a brutal society，and finally that it is of questionable effectiveness as a deterrent to crime anyway.
In our opinion，the death penalty is a necessary evil. Throughout recorded history there have always been those extreme individuals in every society who were capable of terribly violent crimes such as murder. But some are more extreme than others.
For example，it is one thing to take the life of another in a fit of blind rage，but quite another to coldly plot and carry out the murder of one or more people in the style of a butcher. Thus，murder，like all other crimes，is a matter of relative degree. While it could be argued with some conviction that the criminal in the first instance should be merely isolated from society，such should not be the fate of the latter type murderer.
The value of the death penalty as a deterrent to crime may be open to debate. But the overwhelming majority of citizens believe that the death penalty protects them. Their belief is reinforced by evidence which shows that the death penalty deters murder. For example，from 1954 to1963，when the death penalty was consistently imposed in California，the murder rate remained between three and four murders for each 100000 population. Since 1964 the death penalty has been imposed only once，and the murder rate has risen to 10.4 murders for each 100000 population. The sharp climb in the state’s murder rate，which began when executions stopped，is no coincidence. It is convincing evidence that the death penalty does deter many murderers. If the bill reestablishing the death penalty is vetoed，innocent people will be murdered—some whose lives may have been saved if the death penalty were in effect. This is literally a life or death matter. The lives of thousands of innocent people must be protected.
61. The principal purpose of this passage is to .
A. speak for the majority B. initiate a veto
C. criticize the government D. argue for the value of the death penalty
62. The passage attempts to establish a relationship between .
A. the murder rate and the imposition of the death penalty
B. the effects of execution and the effects of isolation
C. the importance of equal rights and that of the death penalty
D. executions and murders
63. The author’s response to those who urge the death penalty for all degrees of murder would most likely be .
A. negative B. friendly C. supportive D. hostile
64. In the passage the author is primarily concerned with .
A. analyzing a problem objectively B. settling a dispute
C. supporting a position D. describing an event
65. It can be inferred that the author thinks that .
A. the death penalty is the most controversial issue in the United States today
B. the second type murderers（in Paragraph 4）should be sentenced to death
C. the veto of the bill reestablishing the death penalty is of little importance
D. the value of the death penalty as a deterrent to crime is not to be debated
Part Ⅳ Cloze（10 minutes，10 points）
Directions：In this part，there is a passage with twenty blanks. For each blank there are four choices marked A，B，C and D. Choose the best answer for each blank and mark the corresponding letter on your ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
What’s your earliest childhood memory？Can you remember learning to walk？Or talk？The first time you 66 thunder or watched a television program？Adults seldom 67 events much earlier than the year or so before entering school，just as children younger than three or four 68 retain any specific，personal experiences. A variety of explanations have been 69 by psychologists for this“childhood amnesia”（儿童失忆症）. One argues that the hippocampus，the region of the brain which is responsible for forming memories，does not mature 70 about the age of two. But the most popular theory 71 that，since adults do not think like children，they cannot 72 childhood memories. Adults think in words，and their life memories are like stories or 73 -one event follows 74 as in a novel or film. But when they search through their mental 75 for early childhood memories to add to this verbal life story，they don’t find any that fits the 76 . It’s like trying to find a Chinese word in an English dictionary.
Now psychologist Annette Simms of the New York State University offers a new 77 for childhood amnesia. She argues that there simply 78 any early childhood memories to recall. According to Dr. Simms，children need to learn to use 79 spoken description of their personal experiences in order to turn their own short-term，quickly 80 impressions of them into long-term memories. In other 81 ，children have to talk about their experiences and hear others talk about 82 . Mother talking about the afternoon 83 looking for seashells at the beach or Dad asking them about their day at Ocean Park. Without this 84 reinforcement，says Dr. Simms，children cannot form 85 memories of their personal experiences.
66. A. listened B. felt C. touched D. heard
67. A. involve B. interpret C. recall D. resolve
68. A. largely B. rarely C. merely D. really
69. A. canceled B. figured C. proposed D. witnessed
70. A. until B. once C. after D. since
71. A. magnifies B. intervenes C. contains D. maintains
72. A. reflect B. attain C. access D. refer
73. A. narratives B. forecasts C. regulations D. descriptions
74. A. the rest B. another C. the other D. others
75. A. outputs B. dreams C. flashes D. files
76. A. footstep B. pattern C. frame D. landscape
77. A. emphasis B. arrangement C. explanation D. factor
78. A. aren’t B. weren’t C. isn’t D. wasn’t
79. A. anyone else B. anyone else’s C. some else D. someone else’s
80. A. forgotten B. remembered C. forgetting D. remembering
81. A. senses B. cases C. words D. means
82. A. him B. theirs C. it D. them
83. A. used B. chosen C. taken D. spent
84. A. habitual B. verbal C. pretty D. mutual
85. A. permanent B. conscious C. subordinate D. spiritual
Paper Two试卷二（60 minutes）
Part Ⅰ Error Detection and Correction（10 minutes，10 points）
Directions：Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts. These parts are marked A，B，C and D. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect. Then，write down the corresponding letter and，without altering the meaning of the sentence，put the correction on the ANSWER SHEET.
1. It is the interaction between people，rather than the events that occur in their lives that are the
A B C
main focus of social psychology.
2. It is very hard to believe that when Lincoln was born，communications were a little faster than
A B C
in the days of Julius Caesar.
3. Although we had been present at roughly the same time，Mr. Brown saw the situation quite
different from the way I saw it.
4. Some of these studies have shown that although some people have trouble to fall asleep，others
have an equally difficult time waking up.
5. Never before I have seen anyone who has the skill John has when he repairs cars.
A B C D
6. Should John resign and Henry succeed him，we would have had a more vigorous leadership.
A B C D
7. Historically，no artists have presented clearer or the more complete records of the development
A B C
of human culture than sculptors have.
8. Although the police are given considerable authority by society to enforce its laws，they get a
relatively low salary as compared with that of other occupational groups which have much fewer
9. Thirteen hundred medical professionals，all of which have been trained to treat drug
dependency，attended the annual convention sponsored by a society.
10. More than three years after moving from Australia to this remote point of England，we are still
A B C
learning how things have done here.
Part Ⅱ Translation（20 minutes，10 points）
Directions：Translate the following passage into English. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
Part Ⅲ Guided Writing（30 minutes，15 points）
Directions：For this part，you are to write a composition of no less than 120 words on The Qualities of the Cross-Century Talents. You should write according to the three-points outline given below. Please write it clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.