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在职研究生 清华大学

清华大学博士研究生入学考试英语试题

来源:在职研究生招生信息网

时间:2015-07-28

  Part II Vocabulary(10%)

  Directions: There are 20 incomplete sentences or sentences with underlined words in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one that completes the sentence or is the nearest in meaning with the underlined word and then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.

  21. Ploughs and other agricultural implements were on display at the recent exhibition.

  A. equations B. playthings C. tools D. machinery

  22. My own inclination,if I were in your situation,would be to look for another position.

  A. symptom B. 1ikeness C. habit D. tendency

  23. The combination of lenses in a compound microscope makes possible greateramplification than can be achieved with a single lens.

  A. management B. magnificence C. magnetism D.magnification

  24. The degree of downward slope of a beach depends on its composition of deposits as well as on the action of waves across its surface.

  A. sentiment B. sediment C. semester D. segment

  25. The rigor of the winter in Russia was often described by Mogol.

  A. harshness B. perturbation C. dismay D. pessimism

  26. Nowadays,the prescribed roles of the man as "breadwinner"and the woman as housewife are changing.

  A. ascribed B. prevalent C. original D. settled

  27. A divorcee,Tom,is the sole provider in a typically "single parent"family.

  A. religious B. spiritual C. exclusive D. chief

  28. The old woman is chronically ill in bed and seldom goes out.

  A. seriously B. dangerously C. continually D. incurably

  29. The driver stopped his car so abruptly that he was hit by the cab right behind him.

  A. impolitely B. violently C. suddenly D. maladroitly

  30. Benin Mayer Alcott based the principal characters of her book Little Women on her sisters and herself.

  A. original B. central C. subjunctive D. oriental

  31. Largely due to the university tradition and the current academic milieu, every college student here works ______.

  A. industrially B. industriously C. consciously D. purposefully

  32. I don’t think it's sensible of you to ______your greater knowledge in front of the chairwoman fur it may well offend her.

  A. show up B. show off C. show out D. show away

  33. _________, he did become annoyed with her at times.

  A. Much as he liked her B. As he liked her much

  C. Although much he liked her D. Much although he liked her

  34. If we don’t stop flirting with those deathly nuclear weapons, the whole globe will be ________.

  A. empowered B. punished C. polluted D. annihilated

  35. One of the important properties of a scientific theory is its ability to _____further research and further thinking about a particular topic.

  A. invent B. stimulate C. renovate D. advocate

  36. When in his rebellious years, that is when he was sixteen or eighteen, Frank Anderson _____going around with a strange set of people and staying out very late.

  A. took to B. took up C. took on D. took in

  37. In spite of the wide range of reading material specially designed or ____fur language learning purposes, there is yet no effective and systematic program fur the reading skills.

  A. appointed B. assembled C. acknowledged D. adapted

  38. In l816,an apparently insignificant event in a remote part of Northern Europe _______Europe into a bloody War.

  A. imposed B. plunged C. pitched D. inserted

  39. The municipal planning commission said that their financial outlook for the next year was optimistic. They expect increased tax _______.

  A. privileges B. efficiency C. revenues D. validity

  40. The problem of pollution as well as several other issues is going to be discussed when the Congress is in _______again next spring.

  A. convention B. conference C. session D. assembly

  Part III Reading Comprehension(40%)

  Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should decide on the best choice and then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWERSHEET.

  Questions 41 to 45 are based on the following passage.

  On September 7, 2001, a 68-year-old woman in Strasbourg, France, had her gall bladder(胆囊)removed by-surgeons operating, via computer from New York. It was the first complete telesurgery procedure performed by surgeons nearly 4, 000 miles away from their patient.

  In New York, Marescaux teamed up with surgeon Michel Gagner to perform the historic long-distance operation. A high-speed fiber-optic service provided by France Telecom made the connection between New York and Strasbourg. The two surgeons controlled the instruments using an advanced robotic surgical system, designed by Computer Motion Inc. that enabled the procedure to be minimally invasive. The patient was released from the hospital after about 48 hours and regained normal activity the following week.

  The high-speed fiber-optic connection between New York and France made it possible to overcome a key obstacle to telesurgery time delay. It was crucial that a continuous time delay of less than 200 milliseconds be maintained throughout the operation, between the surgeon’s movements in New York and the return video (from Strasbourg) on his screen The delay problem includes video coding decoding and signal transmission time.

  France Telecom’s engineers achieved an average time delay of l50 milliseconds. "I felt as comfortable operating on my patient as if I had been in the room," says Marescaux.

  The successful collaboration(合作)among medicine, advanced technology, and telecomm unications is likely to have enormous implications for patient care and doctor training. Highly skilled surgeons may soon regularly perform especially difficult operations through long-distance procedures. The computer systems used to control surgical movement can also lead to a breakthrough in teaching surgical techniques to a new generation of physicians. More surgeons-in-training will have the opportunity to observe their teachers in action in telesurgery operating rooms around the world.

  Marescaux describes the success of the remotely performed surgical procedure as the beginning of a "third revolution" in surgery within the last decade. The first was the arrival of minimally invasive surgery, enabling procedures to be performed with guidance by a camera, meaning that the abdomen (腹部) and thorax (胸腔) do not have to be opened. The second was the introduction of computer-assisted surgery, where complicated software algorithms (计算法) enhance the safety of the surgeon’s movements during a procedure, making them more accurate, while introducing the concept of distance between the surgeon and the patient. It was thus natural to imagine that this distance-currently several meters in the operating room could potentially be up to several thousand kilometers.

  41. The title that best expresses the main idea is ________.

  A. How the Second Revolution in Surgery Comes Out

  B. The Telesurgery Revolution

  C. A Patient Was Saved

  D. Dream Comes True

  42. The italicized word "telesurgery" (Para. 1, Sentence 2) can be best explained as ____.

  A. an operation done over a distance B. an operation done on television

  C. an operation demanding special skill D. an operation demanding high technology

  43. How long did it take the patient to resume her normal activity after the operation?

  A. 24 hours. B. 48 hours. C. About a week. D. Almost a month.

  44. What is the major barrier to telesurgery?

  A. Distance. B. Advanced technology.

  C. Delay. D. Medical facilities

  45. The writer implies that _________.

  A. difficult operation can be successfully performed all over the world now

  B. compared to the "third revolution" in surgery, the first two are less important

  C. all patients can be cured by a gall bladder-removal operation

  D. a new breakthrough has been made in surgery

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

  The multi-billion-dollar Western pop music industry is under fire. It is being blamed by the United Nations for the dramatic rise in drug abuse worldwide. "The most worrisome development is a culture of drug-friendliness that seems to be gaining prominence(显著)," said the UN’s 13-member International Narcotics Control Board in a report released in late February l998.

  The 74-page study says that pop music, as a global industry, is by far the most influential trend—setter for young people of most cultures. "Some lyrics advocate the smoking of marijuana (大麻) or taking other drugs, and certain pop stars make statements and set examples as if the use of drugs for non-medicinal purposes were a normal and acceptable part of a person’s lifestyle." the study says.

  Surprisingly, says the Board, the effect of drug-friendly pop music seems to survive despite the occasional shock of death by overdose (过量用药). "Such incidents tend to be seen as an occasion to mourn the loss of a role model, and not an opportunity to confront the deadly effect of ‘recreational’ drug use," it notes. Since the l970s, several internationally famous singers and movie stars — including Elvis Presley, Janice Joplin, John Belushi, Jimi Hendrix, Jonathan Melvin and Andy Gibbs — have died of either drug abuse or drug related illnesses. With the globalization of popular music, messages tolerating or promoting drug abuse are now reaching beyond their countries of origin. "In most countries, the names of certain pop stars have become familiar to the members of every household," the study says.

  The UN study also blames the media for its description of certain drug issues — especially the use of marijuana and issues of liberalization and legalization — which encourages, rather than prevents, drug abuse. "Over the last years, we have seen how drug abuse is increasingly regarded as being acceptable or even attractive," says Hamid Ghodse, president of the Board "Powerful pressure groups run political campaigns aimed at legalizing controlled drags, "he says. Ghodse also points out that all these developments have created an environment which is tolerant of or even favorable to drug abuse and spoils international drug prevention efforts currently underway.

  The present study, he says, focuses on the issue of demand reduction and prevention within an environment that has become tolerant of drug abuse. The Board calls on governments to do their legal and moral duties, and to act against the pro-drug messages of the youth culture to which young people increasingly are being exposed.

  46. Which of the following statements does the author tend to agree with?

  A. The use of drugs for non-medicinal purposes is an acceptable part of a person’s lifestyle.

  B. The spreading of pop music may cause the drug abuse to go beyond the boundaries of the country.

  C. No efforts have been made to prevent the spreading of drug abuse.

  D. The governments have no ability to act against the pro-drug messages of the youth culture.

  47. The italicized phrase "under fire" (Para l, Sentence l) means ______.

  A. in an urgent situation B. facing some problems

  C. being criticized D. quite popular

  48. Under the influence of drug-friendly pop music, what might the youth think of the death of some pop stars caused by overdose?

  A. They tend to mourn the pop stars as role models.

  B. They are shocked to know even pop stars may abuse drugs.

  C. They try to confront the deadly effect of "recreational" drug use.

  D. They may stop abusing the drags

  49. Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage as a factor that has contributed to creating all environment tolerant of or even favorable to drug abuse?

  A. The spreading of pop music.

  B. The media.

  C. Political campaigns run by powerful pressure groups.

  D. The low price of some drugs.

  50. The pop music ________.

  A. has a great influence on young people of most cultures

  B. only appeals to a small number of young people

  C. is not a profitable industry

  D. is the only culprit (罪魁祸首) responsible for drug amuse

  Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

  The Alaska pipeline starts at the frozen edge of the Arctic Ocean. It stretches southward across the largest and northern most state in the United States, ending at a remote ice-flee seaport village nearly 800 miles from where it begins. It is massive in size and extremely operated.

  The steel pipe crosses windswept plains and endless miles of delicate tundra that tops the frozen ground. It weaves through crooked canyons, climbs sheer mountains, plunges over rocky crags, makes its way through thick forests, and passes over or under hundreds of rivers and streams. The pipe is 4 feet in diameter, and up to 2 million barrels of crude oil can be pumped through it daily.

  Resting on H-shaped steel racks called "bents", long sections of the pipeline follow a zigzag course high above the frozen earth. Other long sections drop out of sight beneath spongy or rocky ground and return to the surface later on. The pattern of the pipeline’s up-and-down route is determined by the often harsh demands of the arctic and subarctic climate, the tortuous lay of the land, and the varied compositions of soil, rock, or permanently frozen ground. A little more than half of the pipeline is elevated above the ground. The remainder is buried anywhere from 3 to 12 feet, depending largely upon the type of terrain and the properties of the soil.

  One of the largest in the world, the pipeline cost approximately$8 billion and is by far the biggest and most expensive construction project ever undertaken by private industry. In fact, no single business could raise that much money, so 8 major oil companies formed a consortium in order to share the costs. Each company controlled oil rights to particular shares of land in the oil fields and paid into the pipeline-construction fund according to the size of its holdings. Today, despite enormous problems of climate, supply shortages, equipment breakdowns, 1abor disagreements, treacherous terrain, a certain amount of mismanagements and even theft the Alaska pipeline has been completed and is operating.

  51. The passage primarily discusses the pipeline’s______.

  A. operating costs B. employees

  C. consumers D. construction

  52. The word "it" (Para. 1, Sentence 3) refers to _______.

  A. pipeline B. ocean C. state D. village

  53. The author mentions all of the following as important in determining the pipeline’s route EXCEPT the ______.

  A. climate B. 1ay of the land itself

  C. local vegetation D. kind of soil and rock

  54. How many companies shared the costs of constructing the pipeline?

  A. 3. B. 4. C. 8. D. 12.

  55. Which of the following determined what percentage of the construction costs each member of the consortium would pay?

  A. How much oil field land each company owned?

  B. How long each company had owned land in the oil fields?

  C. How many people worked for each company?

  D. How many oil wells were located on the company’s land?

  Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.

  Margherita is a London girl and arriving at Capital was like coming home "I grew up listening to capital Radio," she says. "People say, ‘Wasn’t it frightening, joining such well-known presenters?’ But everyone here is so down to earth. It would be off-putting if the others had people doing their make-up, or star signs on their office doors. But there’s none of that—Mick Brown, for instance, finishes his show and wanders off to get the bus home with everyone else."

  Margherita says that her own musical tastes varied. But she doesn’t pick her own music for her shows. The Capital computer selects the records in advance from a list approved by the station managers. "The station has a certain sound, and if we all picked our own music, it wouldn’t sound like Capital, she says· "But for someone who likes music, this is a dream job. I get to go to concerts and meet the bands you can hear on my show. It’s great to hear the ‘behind the scenes’ gossip."

  Most people would expect that a presenter’s most important qualities are a nice voice and huge amounts of confidence, but Marghertita says that basic maths is handy as well. "You have to make sure that you've got an eye on everything that’s going on in the studio, but you’ve got to be able to add and subtract and think in minutes and seconds," she says. "You’re dealing with timed records, and with announcements and commercials that are also timed precisely, and you have to be ready to switch to the news at exactly the right second. If you’re going over to a live event, you need to be ready, for that on time, not a second earlier or later."

  This isn’t the sort of girl to let the rock ‘n’ roll lifestyle go to her head. Even if she did her family would bring her down to earth. "When I started at Capital the only thing my brothers asked was whether they’d get free records," she remembers. ‘‘And my mum couldn’t even find the station on her radio."

  Margherita Taylor is very nice and very easy-going, but very much in control. She is so much a "Capital Radio girl" that you might think she is just doing a good job for the station’s publicity, department, although you know what she’s saying really comes from the heart. She smiles a lot, laughs a lot and is generally a great advert for Capital.

  56. What does "that" (Para. 1, Sentence 6) refer to?

  A. The fame of the other presenters.

  B. Margherita’S fear of the other staff.

  C. Self-important behaviour by the other presenters·

  D. Bad treatment of Margherita by the other staff.

  57. One point Margherita makes about her job is that ________.

  A. she has changed her attitude to music

  B. she is unhappy that records she plays are chosen for her

  C. she likes most of the music that she plays on her show

  D. she enjoys talking to the people whose records she plays

  58. What does Margherita say about presenting a show?

  A. It is essential to keep in mind what is going to happen next

  B. It is more complicated than she had previously thought·

  C. The ability to add and subtract is the most important requirement

  D. The contend of a show is sometimes changed suddenly.

  59. How have Margherita’s family reacted to her success?

  A. With caution. B. Without interest.

  C. With surprise D. Without excitement.

  60. In the final paragraph, what does the author say about Margherita?

  A. She was different from what she had expected.

  B. She genuinely believes that Capital is a good radio station.

  C. She feels it necessary to talk about Capital Radio all the time.

  D. She has already changed her job at Capital radio.

  Part IV Cloze(10%)

  Directions: There m 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET.

  The most exciting kind of education is also the most personal. Nothing call 61 the joy of discovering for yourself something that is important to you. It may be an idea or a bit of information you 62 across accidentally — or a sudden 63 , fitting together pieces of information or working through a problem. Such personal __64__ are the "pay off" in education. A teacher may 65 you to learning and even encourage you in it — but no teacher can make the excitement or the joy happen. That’s 66 to you.

  A research paper, 67 in a course and perhaps checked at various stages by all instructor, you beyond classrooms, beyond the texts for classes and into a 69 where the joy of discover and learning can come to you many times. ___70___the research paper is an active and individual process, and ideal learning process. It provides a structure ___71__ which you can make exciting discoveries, of knowledge and of sell that are basic to education. But the research paper also gives you a chance to individualize a school assignment, to __72__ a piece of work to your own interests and abilities, to show others ___73 __ you can do. Waiting a research paper is more than just a classroom exercise. It is an experience in 74 out, understanding and synthesizing, which forms the basis of many skills 75 to both academic and nonacademic tasks. It is, in the fullest sense, a discovering education. So, to produce a good research paper is both a useful and a thoroughly 76 experience!

  To some, the thought of having to write an assigned number of pages often more that ever produced 77 , is disconcerting. To others, the very idea of having to work 78 is threatening. But there is no need to approach the research paper assignment with anxiety, and nobody should view the research paper as an obstacle to 79 . Instead, consider it a goal to 80 , a goal within reach if you use the help this book can give you.

  61. A. exterminate B. impulse C. intervene D. exceed

  62. A. conform B. confront C. come D. console

  63. A. insight B. relaxation C. relay D. ingredient

  64. A. serials B. separations C. encounters D. segregations

  65. A. help B. salute C. scrub D. direct

  66. A. here B. off C. up D. with

  67. A. assigning B. assigned C. 1ounged D. 1ounging

  68. A. 1itters B. intervenes C. jots D. 1eads

  69. A. process B. interface C. interpretation D. prosecution

  70. A. Designing B. Designed C. Preparing D. Prepared

  71. A. outside B. within C. without D. upon

  72. A. grease B. glare C. suffix D. suit

  73. A. which B. what C. how D. because

  74. A. searching B. supplementing C. popularizing D. polarizing

  75. A. arrogant B. concise C. chronic D. applicable

  76. A. segmenting B. satisfying C. characterizing D. chartering

  77. A. later B. beforehand C. afterwards D. before

  78. A. accordingly B. acceptably C. independently D. infinitely

  79. A. overwork B. overcome C. 1umber D. 1ull

  80. A. accelerate B. caution C. accomplish D. boycott

  Part V Writing(20%)

  Directions: In this part, you are asked to write a composition on the title of "My Aim for Doctoral Study" with no less than 200 English words. Your composition should be based on the following outline given in Chinese. Put your composition on the ANSWER SHEET.

  1. 你攻读博士学位的目标是

  2. 你确定这一目标的原因是

  3. 你将如何努力实现。

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