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2019年非全日制研究生考研英语(一)阅读理解题参考答案

  2019年度非全日制研究生考试已经过去一些时间,但是大家对于考试的关注度并没有消减,一下为大家整理了英语(一)阅读理解题的参考答案,以供大家核对。

  Part A

  Text 1

    21.【A】enhance banker's sense of responsibility;细节题。题目中明确出题段落(According to Paragraph 1)及相应的信息点(one motive in imposing the new rule),因此,答案来源句则为第一段的第三句(The main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institution这个规则主要目的是让银行家为不良风险负责以及修复公众对金融机构的信任),那么答案基本就很容易提取出来。选项中的“sense of responsibility”则对应到句中的“enhance banker's sense of responsibility(增加银行的责任感)”;而其他的选项则与最佳选项无缘,在定位区间中没有相应的对应信息。

  22.【D】 "short-termism" in economic activities;细节题。题干中的定位信息在“Alfred Marshall”上,直接定位到第二段的第二句“He quotes a giant of classical economies, Alfred Marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting...”,定位信息里的“this financial impatience”则是回指第二段首句的“Short-termism”,故信息点则为“Short-termism”,所以最佳选项则为"short-termism" in economic activities,而其他选项在定位信息中未提及;

    23.【B】 adverse;细节题。此题的定位信息为题干的“transient investment”,直接定位到第三段的第二句“Transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty”,从四个选项的褒贬正负来看indirect、minimal 和temporary为中性的表述,只有B选项的adverse为明确的负面表达,意思为“不利的”,与原文中的“hinder”(阻碍打扰)对应上。

  24.【C】the approaches to promoting "long-termism" ;例证题。根据题干的具体信息定位,美国和法国的例子是用来支撑什么论点。原文的第五、六段则提供了具体的信息,第五段中美国延迟发放才上任一年左右的高管绩效津贴,继而促进缓解“短期主义”盛行的现状;第六段则提及在法国持股两年以上者拥有更大的选票权。所以,最佳选项应为“促进长期主义的方法”,与原文一致;

  25.【B】Patience as a Corporate Virtue;主旨题。题干中的title为标题题的信息,所以此题考查的是文章的主旨大意;B 选项里的patience可以对应到全文中反复出现的主题词“short-termism”和“long-termism”,corporate本身在文章中出现多次,所以B 选项则为最近标题,体现主旨大意;其余选项均不能概括全文,故排除。

  Text 2

  26.【D】The influence of consumer culture;细节题。根据题干中的关键词grade inflation 可以定位到首段第一句话,此句话的句子主干:“Grade inflation is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education.” 题干中的be regarded as对应原文中的is considered,题干中的the cause of(后边接结果)与原文中的a product of (前边接结果)都表示因果关系。选项D中consumer是原文中的复现,其他选项都不具备干扰性,因此答案选择D。

    27.【A】To help freshmen adapt to college learning;细节题。根据题干中的关键词,我们只能定位到文章的第二段,但是第二段讲的是grade forgiveness具体是什么,并没有提及它的目的,然后接下看第三段的首句,出现了this little-known practice指的就是grade forgiveness。而且题干中的the original purpose对应原文中的在第三段第二句话: “When this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses.”选项A中的freshmen是原词复现,help是对应原文中的give them a second chance,adapt to对应原文中的struggled in their transition to,college learning对应原文中的college-level courses。因此答案为A。

  28.【A】obtain more financial support;细节题。根据题干中的关键词paragraph 5、grade forgiveness和colleges可以定位到第五段的第一句,即grade forgiveness能够满足学生的需求,但是对应选项并没有对应的答案,所以接着往下看,提到了国家基金与他们的成功有关,得到更好地分数意为这拿到更多的钱。选项A中的financial support指的就是state funds。因此答案为A。

  29.【C】to be identical with each other;猜词题。根据题干,可以定位到第六段最后一句话:“On this, students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned.”所以解题的关键是找到this指代的内容。This指代的是前一句话,即:因为学生和家长都希望通过大学学历来找工作,所以学校的最佳利益是尽可能地把学生培养成有能力胜任的人,或者至少看起来是那样。由此可以的出学生和学校的目标是一致的,选项C中的be identical with表示的是与……相同,因此答案为C。

  30.【B】analyzing the causes behind it;主旨题。题干的字面意思是作者是通过什么样的方式来检验grade forgiveness的实践操作,但是是考查文章的主旨,属于主旨题。阅读每段的段落大意句,可以得出文章主要讲解的是grade forgiveness的原因。因此答案为B。

  Text 3

  31.【C】involves some concerns raised by AI today; 通过题干Mary Shelly’s novel Frankenstein及题文同序原则可定位至文章第一段,在该段尾句,fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come. 此句中 ethical questions 可同义替换题干中的concern。故C为正选。

  32.【D】is too limited for us to reproduce it;观点细节题。可通过关键词consciousness 回文定位至原文第2段尾句部分:we are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousness actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there. 可知我们将意识注入机器的能力是有限的,因为没有好的理论可以解释。

  33.【B】is still beyond our capacity;根据题干关键词可定位至文章第3段,AI “vision”today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans.And to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.该句说到:当下,人工智能的思维还不能达到人类的精密程度,去让机器去预设每一种驾驶情形是一个困难的编程问题。由此说明,去解决人工智能所带来的道德问题,是在人类的能力范围之外的。

  34.【A】affirmation;态度题 ,根据题干中的 the author’s attitude ,Google’s pledges.回文定位到第八段,,开头while转折,while the statement is vague, 与vague相反的即是观点,所以表示正向情感的词即是正解。affirmation表示确定。

  35.【C】Frankenstein, the Novel predicting the Age of AI;主旨题。本文首段通过引用Mary Shelley的书引出本文要探讨的话题新技术所引发的道德问题。特别是在最后一段指出AI所涉及的道德问题已经触手可及。全篇复现了AI和conscience这两个关键词,所以答案选C

  Text 4

  36.【C】 make more online shoppers pay sales tax;本题为细节题,根据题干关键字“the Supreme Court decision Thursday”定位到原文第一段“States will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a Supreme Court decision Thursday that ...”前半句已经明确提出各州的在线购物可能要交税,对应选项C,原词“ online”加“ shoppers”对“purchase”的同义替换。其他三个选项均为提及。

  37.【D】were considered up favorable by states;根据题干“learned”可知本题为推理题,根据关键字“the overruled decisions ”定位到原文第二段的两句,大意为“州政府抱怨以前的政策使每年税收损失惨重,因此以前的政策很难再收取网上营业税”两句表示出的意思都是对州政府的不利,对比四个选项,得出答案D,州政府认为原政策对州会不利,因此驳回这项决定会对州有有利,为正话反说。

  38.【C】harmed fair market competition;本题为细节题,根据题干关键词“Justice Anthony Kennedy”“the physical presence rule”定位到原文第四段的第二句和第三句,大意为实体店规定导致州政府税收亏损,接着下一句Kennedy wrote that the rule “limited states’ ability to seek long-term prosperity and has prevented from on an even playing field.”该规定限制了州政府长期繁荣,并妨碍市场参与者参与公平竞争。对比四个选项,D选项为“破坏了公平市场竞争”和原文“competing”“ market participant”一一对应,为正确答案。

  39.【B】Big-chair owners;根据题干“likely”得出本题为推理题,利用关键词“welcome the Supreme Court ruling”定位到原文第五段第一句“ The ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states, since....”对于大公司来说这项规定是一种胜利,因为...,只需找到关键词 “big chain”即可选出B选项:大型连锁公司。

  40.【D】cities some cases related to it and analyzes their implications;本题为主旨题,需找出作者的相应观点与论证,根据题干关键词In dealing with the Supreme Court decision Thursday”回顾每段首尾句,推测每段大意,第一段讲述最高法院通过了征收在线营业税的决定,第二段介绍之前的裁决及后果是对州政府不利的,第三段介绍了原来裁决涉及到的案例,第四段陈列了法官的观点,即以前的裁决是有问题的,第五段主要讲述新判决会对大型连锁超市产生有利的影响,第六段讲述新裁决对州外卖价的影响,第七段表示新的判决得到零售界的肯定,因此本文的思路为:首段引出新判决,二三四段列举相关案例,五六七段对其影响进行讲述,对比四个选项,得出D:作者在讲述这个判决时引用了相关案例并分析了他们的影响。

  Part B

  41. 【E】}[In his 1936 work How to Win Friends and Influence People , Dale Carnegie wrote: “there is only one way……to get the best of an argument-and that is to avoid it.]

  段落排序解题若首段未给出,首先需要大家通读全部选项首句话,本句首句话中的句间衔接关系排除选首段。本篇文章中,A选项第一句话中含有指代关系词these 故根据该词确定本选项直接排除,B选项有of cause衔接上下文的词出现,D选项可以作为首段的可能选项,E选项也可以作为首段的可能选项,G选项首句中含有better way比较级,故本题的答案应在D或E选项中得出,根据D选项人物Carnegie和E选项人物Dale Carnegie的名称特点,可以得知首次出现应为全名形式,故本题的答案应为E选项。

  42. 【D】[Carnegie would be right if arguments were fights, which is how we often think of them.]

  首段为Carnegie的观点信息,故下段复现应为该人物的观点承接,故通过扫读剩下的选项可知该题只有D选项可以承接。

  43. 【G】[There is a better way to win arguments. ]

    该题上一段最后一句话为“None of these tricks will help you understand them, their positions or the issues that divide you, but they can help you win -- in one way.”可知these tricks是对上文信息的否定,下文应该复现win arguments的肯定的表述,根据选项分析可知G选项首句There is a better way to win arguments.正好与F选项尾句形成首尾衔接。

  44. 【B】[Of course, many discussions are not so successful. Still, we need to be careful not to accuse opponents of bad arguments too quickly. ]

  该题上段为G段,尾句讲述的是 Now we can understand each other’s positions and recognize our shared values, since we both care about needy workers. 而根据衔接可确定G段讲述的是成功的讨论,B选项首句not so successful正衔接上文,转折讲述不成功的案例。

  45.【A】[These tools can help you win every argument--not in the unhelpful sense of beating your opponents but in the better sense of learning about the issues that divide people. ]

    上段C选项中 Next time you talk with someone who takes a stand, ask them to give you a reason for their view. Spell out their argument fully and charitably. Assess its strength impartially. Raise objections and listen carefully to their replies.最后这几句话主要讲的是有关于谈话的四种手段,正好与A选项首句中的These tools 形成呼应关系,故本题答案应为A选项。

  Part C

  翻译

  46.There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.

  考点:there be句型、定语从句、状语从句、词义选择

  结构分析:含有定语从句和状语从句的复合句。句子主干为:There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense. in the medical journals为介词短语作状语修饰主干内容,其中名词journals又带有一个由which引导的定语从句,which 指代nonsense, 而定语从句中又含有一个由when引导的状语从句,从句层层包裹,形成复合句,翻译时注意理清从句间的关系。

  【参考译文】:医学期刊中由很多类似的无稽之谈,这些说法一旦被广播公司和新闻媒体报道,就会引发健康恐慌和短暂的饮食热潮。

  47. Nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago.

  考点:分词短语作定语、被动语态、比较结构

  结构分析:含有分词结构和定语从句的复合句。句子主干为:nowadays anyone …… has to have published twice the number of papers…….其中,“applying for a research post”为现在分词短语作定语修饰anyone,“that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago”为定语从句修饰papers, “twice the number of……”为比较结构。

  【参考译文】:如今,任何申请研究职位的人都必须发表两倍于10年前同一职位所需的论文数量。

    48. Attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers.

  考点:被动语态、插入语、介词短语作状语、词义选择、语序调整

  结构分析:本句为主谓结构的简单句。句子主干为:Attempts have been made…….其中,“to curb this tendency”和“by……”分别为不定式短语和介词短语作状语修饰句子主干内容。

  【参考译文】:人们已经做出努力来遏制这种趋势,例如,将质量和数量标准纳入申请者的论文评估中。

  49. This would be reasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favours.

  考点:状语从句、虚拟语气、同位语从句

  结构分析:本句为含有状语从句的复合句。主干为:This would be reasonable……;“……that scientists can……”为that引导的同位语从句解释说明fact内容。“arrange to cite …….“和”get associates to do so……“为动宾结构并列和前面名词scientists构成主谓宾结构。

  【参考译文】:如果不是因为科学家们可以很容易地在未来的出版物中引用自己,或者让同事为他们这样作以换取类似的好处,这将是合理的。

  50. If we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions encourage that kind of science.

  考点:状语从句、宾语从句

  结构分析:本句为含有状语从句和宾语从句的复合句。主干为:……we must ensure that……其中,“if we are serious about……”为条件状语从句,“ensuring that ……”为现在分词结构作介词宾语;“……that our institutions encourage that kind of science”为ensure引导的宾语从句。

  【参考译文】:如果我们确实要保证我们的科学既有意义又可再生,那么我们必须确保我们的机构鼓励这种科学的进步。

  以上是关于2019年考研英语(一)阅读理解题的相关参考答案,如果大家对于非全日制研究生还有其他问题,可以与在线咨询老师。

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