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2021考研英语一真题及答案解析(三)

来源: 在职研究生招生信息网

时间:2020-12-28

  2021年在职研究生考研英语一考试已经结束,为了让大家及时了解考试情况,本文由老师为大家整理了2021年考研英语一真题及答案以供大家核对。

  Section II Reading Comprehension Part B

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs C and F have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  In the movies and on television, artificial intelligence is typically depicted as something sinister that will upend our way of life. When it comes to AI in business, we often hear about it in relation to automation and the impending loss of jobs, but in what ways is AI changing companies and the larger economy that don’t involve doom-and-mass unemployment predictions?

A recent survey of manufacturing and service industries from Tata Consultancy Services found that companies currently use Al more often in computer-to-computer activities than in automating human activities. One common application? Preventing electronic security breaches, which, rather than eliminating IT jobs, actually makes those personnel more valuable to employers, because they help firms prevent hacking attempts.

  Here are a few other ways AI is aiding companies without replacing employees:

  Better hiring practice

  Companies are using artificial intelligence to remove some of the unconscious bias from hiring decisions. "There are experiments that show that, naturally, the results of interviews are much more biased than what AI does," says Pedro Domingos, author of The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World and a computer science _____(41)One company that’s doing this is called Blendoor. It uses analytics to help identify where there may be bias in the hiring process.

  More effective marketing

  Some AI software can analyze and optimize marketing email subject lines to increase open rates. One company in the UK, Phrasee, claims their software can outperform humans by up to 10 percent when it comes to email open rates. This can mean millions more in revenue. _____(42)There are “tools that help people use data, not a replacement for people,” says Patrick H. Winston, a professor of artificial intelligence and computer science at MIT.

  Saving customers money

  Energy companies can use AI to help customers reduce their electricity bills saving them money while helping the environment. Companies can also optimize their own energy use and cut down on the cost of electricity. Insurance companies meanwhile, can base their premiums on AI models that more accurately access risk. "Before, they might not insure the ones who felt like a high risk or charge them too much," says Domingos, _____(43)

  Improved accuracy

  Machine learning often provides a more reliable form of statistics, which makes data more valuable," says Winston. It "helps people make smarter decisions." _____(44)

Protecting and maintaining infrastructure

A number of companies, particularly in energy and transportation, use AI image processing technology to inspect infrastructure and prevent equipment failure or leaks before they happen. "If they fail first and then you fix them, it's very expensive," says Domingos. _____(45)

  [A] I replaces the boring parts of your job. If you're doing research, you can have AI go out and look for relevant sources and information that otherwise you just wouldn't have time for.

[B] One accounting firm, EY, uses an AI system that helps review contracts during an audit. This process, along with employees reviewing the contracts, is faster and more accurate.

  [C] There are also companies like Acquisio, which analyzes advertising performance across multiple channels like Adwords, Bing and social media and makes adjustments or suggestions about where advertising funds will yield best results.

  [D] You want to predict if something needs attention now and point to where it's useful for employees to go to.

  [E] Before, they might not insure the ones who felt like a high risk or charge them too much, or they would charge them too little and then it would cost [the company] money.

  [F] We're also giving our customers better channels versus picking up the phone to accomplish something beyond human scale.

  [G] AI looks at resumes in greater numbers than humans would be able to, and selects the more promising candidates.

  【答案】41.F  42.B  43.G  44.C  45.E  

  Section III Translation

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  World war was the watershed event for higher education in modern Western societies(46)Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 3-5% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war. But after the war, great social and political changes arising out of the successful war against Fascism created a growing demand in European and American economies for increasing numbers of graduates with more than a secondary school education.(47)And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending a university before the war. These demands resulted in a very rapid expansion of the systems of higher education, beginning in the 1960s and developing very rapidly (though unevenly) during the 1970s and 1980s.

  The growth of higher education manifests itself in at least three quite different ways, and these in turn have given rise to different sets of problems. There was first the rate of growth:(48)in many counties of Western Europe, the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year periods during the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s. Second growth obviously affected the absolute size both of systems and individual institutions. And third growth was reflected in changes in the proportion of the relevant age group enrolled in institutions of higher education.

  Each of these manifestations of growth carried its own peculiar problems in its wake/ For example, a high growth rate placed great strains on the existing structures of governance, of administration, and above all of socialization. When a faculty or department grows from, say, five to 20 members within three or four years,(49)and when the new staff predominantly young men and women fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty. And if the postgraduate student population also grows rapidly and there is loss of a close apprenticeship relationship between faculty members and students, the student culture becomes the chief socializing force for new postgraduate students, with consequences for the intellectual and academic life of the institution-this was seen in America as well as in France, Italy, West Germany, and Japan.(50)High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation, they also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth. In the 1960s and 1970s,

  European universities saw marked changes in their governance arrangements, with empowerment of junior faculty and to some degree of students as well.

  46.【题干】Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 3-5% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war.

  【答案】战争结束后,一些社会随之出现了。这些社会的入学率在战前的几十年里一直保持在相关年龄段的3%-5%。

  【解析】come out of…由……产生,从……出来;enrollment入学,登记;decades数十年。

  47.【题干】And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending a university before the war.

  【答案】在那些社会中,人们渴望接受到更高等的教育。这个需求延伸到了战前那些没有想过上大学的群体和社会阶层中。

  【解析】rose:rise的过去式“上升”;attend上大学。

  48.【题干】in many counties of Western Europe, the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year periods during the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s.

  【答案】在西欧的许多国家,20世纪60年代,接受高等教育的学生人数在五年内翻了一番,到70年代中期,在七年,八年或十年里又翻了一番。

  【解析】double作动词,“翻倍”。

  49.【题干】and when the new staff predominantly young men and women fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty.

  【答案】当新员工主要是刚毕业的年轻男女时,他们很大程度上定义了该学院学术生活的规范。

  【解析】predominantly主要地,以……为主;fresh新进的;norms标准,规范;faculty学院,系。

  50.【题干】High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation, they also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth.

  【答案】高增长率增加了学术创新的机会,同时也削弱了教师和学生在稳定或缓慢的成长过程中,被认可为学者这群体的形式和过程。

  【解析】academic innovation学术创新;weakened削弱,减少;admit承认,认可。

  Section IV Writing

  Part A (10 points)

  51.【题干】Directions:

  A foreign friend of yours has recently graduated from college and intends to find a job in China. Write him/her an email to make some suggestions.

  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  Do not sign your own name at the end. Use "Li Ming Open" instead.

  You do not need to write the address.

  【答案】Dear friend,

  Hope this letter finds you well I am glad to hear you intend to find a job in China, so I would like to extend my warmest welcome as well as provide you with a few suggestions on job-hunting.

First, you can start from listing 3 to 5 cities which you would like to work or live in To be more specific, rate them by location, working opportunities and prospects and, of course the city's happiness level. What's more, be prepared for the culture shock. There is a sharp contrast in how eastern people and western people work. The former prefers working individually while the latter is prone to teamwork. There is one more point that, I suppose I have to touch on: make good use of online job-hunting applications, such as BOSS and 51Job.

  I hope you will find my humble suggestions be of help. I am looking forward to your reply. Best wishes.

  Yours,

  Li Ming

  Part B (15 points)

  52.【题干】Directions:

  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

  1) describe the drawing briefly,

  2) explain its intended meaning, and the

  3) give your comments.

  You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

 2021考研英语一真题及答案解析

  【答案】What is graphically and explicitly depicted in the simple yet eye-catching drawing is that on the ground stands a father, who is having a talk with his son. Impressively, at second glance, it is not difficult to observe that the boy, dressed in a traditional Chinese costume, expresses his concern about studying drama, while his father offer some words of encouragement.

  Without a doubt, no boy who was born and raised in China could be ignorant that China is an ancient nation with a long history and splendid traditional culture. Traditional dramas, like Peking opera, are the national essence of our culture, which are not only part of the national heritage, but also part of a living and continuing culture. However, traditional culture has been subject to the impact and damage caused by network culture. It is a not uncommon occurrence that quite a few people show too little enthusiasm for traditional dramas. Instead, they are more than willing to follow the popular culture.

  While popular culture is completely transforming people's thoughts and ways of thinking, we are supposed to cherish the roots of national culture and build cultural confidence. Accordingly, it is my view that national culture should be preserved and cherished as priceless spiritual treasure.

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